The Marine Biome

The Marine Biome - Oceans cover about three-quarters of the...

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The Marine Biome Seashores Rocky shorelines offer anchorage for sessile organisms. Seaweeds are main photosynthesizers and use holdfasts to anchor. Barnacles glue themselves to stone. Oysters and mussels attach themselves by threads. Limpets and periwinkles either hide in crevices or fasten flat to rocks. Sandy beaches and shores are shifting strata. Permanent residents therefore burrow underground. Worms live permanently in tubes. Amphipods and ghost crabs burrow above high tide and feed at night. Coral Reefs Areas of biological abundance in shallow, warm tropical waters. Stony corals have calcium carbonate exoskeleton and may include algae. Most form colonies; may associate with zooxanthellae dinoflagellates. Reef is densely populated with animal life. The Great Barrier Reef of Australia suffers from heavy predation by crown-of- thorns sea star, perhaps because humans have harvested its predator, the giant triton. Oceans
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Unformatted text preview: Oceans cover about three-quarters of the Earth's surface. Oceanic organisms are placed in either pelagic (open water) or benthic (ocean floor) categories, ash shown in Figure 15. Pelagic division is divided into neritic and three levels of pelagic provinces. Neritic province has greater concentration of organisms because sunlight penetrates; nutrients are found here. Epipelagic zone is brightly lit, has much photosynthetic phytoplankton, that support zooplankton that are food for fish, squid, dolphins, and whales. Mesopelagic zone is semi-dark and contains carnivores; adapted organisms tend to be translucent, red colored, or luminescent; for example: shrimps, squids, lantern and hatchet fishes. The bathypelagic zone is completely dark and largest in size; it has strange-looking fish. Benthic division includes organisms on continental shelf (sublittoral), continental slope (bathyal), and the abyssal plain....
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