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The Nephron - Nephrons filter 125 ml of body fluid per...

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The Nephron The nephron consists of a cup-shaped capsule containing capillaries and the glomerulus , and a long renal tube . Blood flows into the kidney through the renal artery, which branches into capillaries associated with the glomerulus. Arterial pressure causes water and solutes from the blood to filter into the capsule. Fluid flows through the proximal tubule , which include the loop of Henle , and then into the distal tubule . The distal tubule empties into a collecting duct. Fluids and solutes are returned to the capillaries that surround the nephron tubule. The nephron has three functions: 1. Glomerular filtration of water and solutes from the blood. 2. Tubular reabsorption of water and conserved molecules back into the blood. 3. Tubular secretion of ions and other waste products from surrounding capillaries into the distal tubule.
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Unformatted text preview: Nephrons filter 125 ml of body fluid per minute; filtering the entire body fluid component 16 times each day. In a 24 hour period nephrons produce 180 liters of filtrate, of which 178.5 liters are reabsorbed. The remaining 1.5 liters forms urine. Urine Production 1. Filtration in the glomerulus and nephron capsule. 2. Reabsorption in the proximal tubule. 3. Tubular secretion in the Loop of Henle. Components of The Nephron • Glomerulus: mechanically filters blood • Bowman's Capsule: mechanically filters blood • Proximal Convoluted Tubule: Reabsorbs 75% of the water, salts, glucose, and amino acids • Loop of Henle: Countercurrent exchange, which maintains the concentration gradient • Distal Convoluted Tubule: Tubular secretion of H ions, potassium, and certain drugs....
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