THE SMALL INTESTINE Digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats continues in the small intestine. Starch and glycogen are broken down into maltose by small intestine enzymes. Proteases are enzymes secreted by the pancreas that continue the breakdown of protein into small peptide fragments and amino acids. Bile emulsifies fats, facilitating their breakdown into progressively smaller fat globules until they can be acted upon by lipases . Bile contains cholesterol, phospholipids, bilirubin, and a mix of salts. Fats are completely digested in the small intestine, unlike carbohydrates and proteins. Most absorption occurs in the duodenum and jejeunum (second third of the small intestine). The inner surface of the intestine has circular folds that more than triple the surface area for absorption. Villi covered with epithelial cells increase the surface area by another factor of 10. The epithelial cells are lined with microvilli that further increase the surface area; a 6 meter long tube has a surface area of 300 square meters.
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2011 for the course BIO BSC1010 taught by Professor Gwenhauner during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.