Ch2-3__Bio - Ch1-3 2.3 Carbon \u25cf Carbon can form up to 4 covalent bonds with other atoms to satisfy the octet rule CH4 \u25cf \u25cf Key component of

Ch2-3__Bio - Ch1-3 2.3 Carbon u25cf Carbon can form up to...

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Ch1-3 2.3 Carbon Carbon can form up to 4 covalent bonds with other atoms to satisfy the octet rule, CH4. Key component of macromolecules (proteins,carbs. Lipids. And nucleic acids) and serves as a backbone Allows for diverse molecules Cells are made of 70-95 of water and the rest carbon Organic chemistry Element # of valence electrons( configuration) Hydrogen 1 oxygen 2 nitrogen 3 carbon 4 Hydrocarbons Consist of carbons and hydrogens Used as fuels: store a great amount of energy which releases when these molecules burn (oxidize) Can exist as linear carbon chains, carbon rings or both Can be single, double, triple covalent bonds *** each type of bonds affects the molecule’s geometry. Eth- 2 carbons Ane= single ( allows for rotations along axis) Ene=double ( leads to a planar configuration, cannot rotate) Yne=triple (linear) Hydrocarbons rings A l i phatic hydrocarbons consist of l i nea r chains of carbon atoms.
If carbon forms a single bond with other atoms: shape is tetrahedral. If 2 carbons form a double bond shape is planar or flat Aro matic consist of closed rings of carbons (most often in rings of double bond ex: benzene important hydrocarbon ring(carcinogen) rings include some amino acids and cholesterol including hormone estrogen and testosterone. Carbons can form 5 and 6 rings( closed chains) single/double bonds may connect in the ring Nitrogen may be substituted for carbon Isomers Same chemical formula but differ in the placement/ structure /chemical bond.

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