Ch1-32.3 Carbon●Carbon can form up to 4 covalent bonds with other atoms to satisfy the octet rule, CH4.●●Key component of macromolecules (proteins,carbs. Lipids. And nucleic acids) and serves as a backbone●Allows for diverse molecules●Cells are made of 70-95 of water and the rest carbon●Organic chemistryElement# of valence electrons( configuration)Hydrogen1oxygen2nitrogen3carbon4Hydrocarbons●Consist of carbons and hydrogensUsed as fuels: store a great amount of energywhich releases when these molecules burn (oxidize)●Can exist as linearcarbon chains, carbon ringsor bothCan be single, double, triple covalent bonds *** each type of bonds affects the molecule’s geometry.Eth- 2 carbonsAne= single ( allows for rotations along axis)Ene=double ( leads to a planar configuration, cannot rotate)Yne=triple (linear)●Hydrocarbons rings Aliphatic hydrocarbons consist oflinear chains of carbon atoms.
If carbon forms a single bond with other atoms: shape is tetrahedral. If 2 carbons form a double bond shape is planar or flat Aromatic consist of closed rings of carbons (most often in rings of double bond ex: benzene important hydrocarbon ring(carcinogen) rings include some amino acids and cholesterol including hormone estrogen and testosterone.Carbons can form 5 and 6 rings( closed chains) single/double bonds may connect in the ring Nitrogen may be substituted for carbon●IsomersSame chemical formula but differ in the placement/ structure /chemical bond.