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11.11 Notes - Crisis in the Late Middle Ages 1300-1500...

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Crisis in the Late Middle Ages, 1300-1500 - Erasmus = most important scholar in Medieval Europe o Traveled all over Europe o Renaissance Humanists with a Republic of Letters – community that transcended countries because they all read and spoke in Latin to each other; considered themselves set apart o Text is a satire; about a real man; exaggerates things to be funny o Pope Julius died; shows up at pearly gates of heaven and meets St. Peter (1 st pope and holds keys to the kingdom of heaven) Popes always talked about the power of the keys St. Peter doesn’t think Pope Julius deserves to get into heaven even though he is called the holy power - Late Middle ages seen as period of decay and crisis and fragmentation, but also creation of renaissance o Time of intensification – countries became stronger, government became more centralized; but in places like Germany which were fragmented, became even more fragmented o Spain – becomes known as Spain (1469) 2 main kingdoms Castaille and Aragon kings and queens mary and join kingdoms Marriage between Fernanand and Isabell leads to 4 things: o Tries to create uniform Christian culture o Form marriage alliances with German families and English crown o Conquered last Spanish kingdom on European soil (Granata?) o Ruling class becomes intolerant of religious minorities - Territories quite well run, but no government unifies them; in 1356, this becomes enshrined in law with the Golden Bull – stipulates how German emperor is to be chosen o Acknowledges power of regional rulers within German rule o No hereditary monarch o No shared legal system and no shared currency Very unstable at the top level - Italy remains fragmented too; In North, is dominated by city states (wealthy, yet violent) o Rome in center, becomes weak; in south, Naples subject of battle from 1496-1599 about who gets to rule Naples - Byzentine Christian empire falls to Ottoman Turks (1453) o Constantinople becomes Istambul and becomes largest and one of most prosperous cities in Europe (population goes from 40,000 to 200,000) o
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