PSY120_EXAM02StudyGuide - Exam 2 Study Guide Elementary...

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Exam 2 Study Guide Elementary Psychology 12000-003 Ch 4: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity 1. Know what chromosomes, genes, DNA, and genomes are, and how they are interrelated. Our Codes for Life: our body consists of 46 chromosomes (23 from the mother and 23 from the father). Each chromosome consists of coiled molecules known as DNA. DNA consists of small segments known as genes which can be active (expressed) or inactive. Genes are activated during environmental, and are the building blocks of physical development. (p. 134, 4.1.1) Chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes. Genes : the biochemical units of heredity that makes up organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes. Genomes : the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes. 2. Explain what behavioral genetics and molecular genetics refer to and what questions they help us understand. Behavioral genetics : the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. Environment : every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us. Heritability : the proportion of variation among individuals that can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environment studied. Molecular genetics : the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes. 3. Explain the difference between gender and biological sex. Gender : in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female. (based on interaction and norms). Biological sex : the quality by which organisms are classified as female or male on the basis of their reproductive organs and functions (Medical dictionary). 4. What are the main tenets of evolutionary psychology? Definition: evolutionary psychology is the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. Evolution and Natural Selection: survival of the fittest; the better species lives.
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Natural selection: the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. Mutations: a random error in gene replication that leads to change. 5. Know gender similarities and differences in aggression, social power, and social connectedness. Aggression: Men tend to be more aggressive than women. Social power: Men have more social power than women; they earn more money than women in general. Social Connectedness:
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PSY120_EXAM02StudyGuide - Exam 2 Study Guide Elementary...

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