Lecture 4 spring 2011 - Microbial Diversity Microbes...

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Microbial Diversity
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Microbes Bacteria Archaea Eukaryotic microbes- yeasts, protists, and algae
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Microbial diversity Vary in structure and metabolism Some live independently while other are dependent upon another organism; i.e., symbiotic relationship Colonize nearly every habitat on earth Most live in complex communities Most have not been characterized
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Myxobacteria-- the social microbe Myxococcus xanthus Image from GBF Braunschweig
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Prokaryotes are not always small Epulopiscium fishelsoni ~0.24 mm. Original article: Mendell, J.E., Clements, K.D., Choat, J.H., Angert, E.R. (2008). Extreme polyploidy in a large bacterium. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 105 (18), 6730-6734. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0707522105 Epulopiscium fishelsoni
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Thiomargarita namibiensis cells (~0.75 mm) Cell from a string of Thiomargarita namibiensis . The inset demonstrates the outer cell wall, the thin layer of cytoplasm lining it, and the large liquid vacuole within the cell. Image from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Uses nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor, nitrate stored in large vacuole that is responsible for 80% of size. Hydrogen sulfide is oxidized into elemental sulfur which is deposited as opalescent granules in the cytoplasm.
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Phylum Group of organisms with a common ancestor and traits Still diversity in metabolism and/or ecological niche or role
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8 Bacterial Phyla Well-studied examples Thermophiles Cyanobacteria Gram-positives Proteobacteria 5 major branches Bacteroidetes Spirochetes Chlamydiae Over 50 other phyla
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9 Undiscovered Bacteria Many (most) species uncharacterized Many bacteria cannot yet be grown Unclassified organisms Identified solely through rRNA sequence Environmental samples rRNA genes are sequenced Can sometimes give provisional identification (candidate status) Many bacteria (majority?) unidentified
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10 Deep-Branching Thermophiles Grow at very high temperatures Branched early, share traits with archaea Rapid growth, high mutation rate Impacts molecular clock Did they really diverge early? Aquificales, thermotogales
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2011 for the course MICROBIO 303 taught by Professor Kaspar/escalnte/downs during the Fall '09 term at University of Wisconsin Colleges Online.

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Lecture 4 spring 2011 - Microbial Diversity Microbes...

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