lec3bCellphonesWeb - INFSCI 2300 Week 3 Attention and...

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Attention and Cell Phones Application of Theory 1 2 INFSCI 2300 – Week 3 Attention and Cellphones Background Dual Task fMRI How to study real-world problems Ecological validity Is it important (answer: yes and no) University of Utah Study Carnegie Mellon University Study 3 Ecological validity What does this term mean? “approach with the ideal of developing theories that operate in realistic everyday situations. Some advocates of this approach would argue that artificial laboratory experiments are sometimes ‘ecologically invalid’ because they fail to capture critical aspects of real-world situations” What implication does it have for research? Might be worth contrasting correlational and experimental studies. Rate the following on Ecologically validity Validity 4 Study 1 Subjects in a Stroop experiment take 20 seconds longer to name the colors of a list of words, if the words are names of colors instead of common nouns. Experimental Control GREEN Say “red” CHAIR Say “red” 5 Study 2 Students in a class are asked to find 10 relevant references as a homework assignment. Students who choose to use Google as their primary search engine find better references as determined by instructor, than students who choose to use Yahoo Search. The instructor concludes that Google is a better search engine for this type of problem. 6 Study 3 Drivers on a controlled track are asked to complete an obstacle course having no alcohol and again after consuming 4 drinks. Those with alcohol make 30% more errors and yet take 20% more time to complete the course. The researchers conclude that 4 drinks significantly impair one’s ability to drive.
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7 Study 4 Subjects are asked search for Q’s in a background of O’s or O’s in a background of Q’s. An interesting asymmetry was found in that the Q’s popped out, while the O’s did not All correlational studies are inherently confounded Experimental studies can control for biases Both can be used together to support theories 8 1. Stroop Test 2. Search Engines 3. Driving 4. O’s and Q’s 9 IS 2300 – Cell Phones University of Utah Study Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A., & Crouch, D. J.(2006). A comparison of the cell phone driver and the drunk driver. Human Factors, 48, 381- 391. Carnegie Mellon Study Marcel Adam Just, et al. Interdependence of Nonoverlapping Cortical Systems in Dual Cognitive Tasks NeuroImage 14, 417–426 (2001) Article at http://www.idealibrary.com/links/doi/10.1006/nimg.2001.0826/pdf Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Report at http://www.post- gazette.com/regionstate/20010727cellphones0727p2.asp CMU Press Release at http://www.cmu.edu/cmnews/010906/010906_cell.html
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course INFSCI 2300 taught by Professor Hirtle during the Winter '11 term at Pittsburgh.

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lec3bCellphonesWeb - INFSCI 2300 Week 3 Attention and...

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