lec6.schema.web.v2

# lec6.schema.web.v2 - Lecture 6 Long-Term Memory Schemas and...

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1 Lecture 6 – Long-Term Memory, Schemas, and Models 2 When I was younger I could remember anything, whether it happened or not. --Mark Twain 3 How to model memory ACT-R, Anderson, CMU See http://rumpole.psych.purdue.edu/models /index.html http://www2.psy.uq.edu.au/CogPsych/Noetica/ OpenForumIssue6/introduction.html 4 ACT Theory Propositions Smallest units that can be T or F Flower Is Pretty Agent Relation 5 ACT Theory Type-token distinction Type is category X Is Blue Agent Relation Flower Is-a 6 ACT Theory, continued Activation spreads through network Learn The lawyer paid the barber The dentist fought the janitor The lawyer fought the doctor Test 1. The barber fought the dentist new 2. The lawyer paid the barber old [2 – 1] Fan Effect More links, the slower the response

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7 Parallel Distributed Processing Representation is distributed over fixed set of nodes and links (+1 –1 –1 +1) -> (-1 –1 +1 +1) 0+0-.5-.5=-1 +1 -1 -1 +1 8 IN1 OUT1        ) 1 1 1 1 ( 0 1 ) 0 1 .( 5 . 1 5 . 1 5 . 1 ) 5 . 1 .( 0 1 0 1 0 1 ) 0 1 ( 5 . 1 5 . 1 5 . 1 ) 5 . 1 ( 0 1 0 1 0 5 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 5 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 0 ) 1 1 1 1 ( 9 IN2 OUT2 (-1 +1 –1 +1) x weights = (-1 +1 +1 –1) Knowledge does not reside in any one link, but is distributed across the weights The same weights can encode multiple bits of knowledge 10 11 Results Pairs INPUT OUTPUT PAIR3 (+1 +1 +1 –1) (+1 +1 +1 +1) PAIR1 (+1 –1 –1 +1) (-1 –1.5 +66 +.5) instead of (-1 –1 +1 +1) PAIR2 (-1 +1 –1 +1) (-1 +.5 +66 -1.5) instead of (-1 +1 +1 –1) As PAIR3 is not orthogonal to other two pairs. PAIR1 and PAIR2 are orthogonal. 12 Orthogonal Vectors In the 2-D shown in Fig 6.13, Vector h and f are orthogonal, while f and g point in similar directions Vectors f and g should be used for similar concepts (dog and cat) Vectors f and h can be used for independent concepts (dog and snake) Input: Animal
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lec6.schema.web.v2 - Lecture 6 Long-Term Memory Schemas and...

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