13.++Organic+PV+cells+1

13.++Organic+PV+cells+1 - MSE 343 April 30, 2008 Organic...

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MSE 343 April 30, 2008 Organic Photovoltaic Cells Outline • Single layer cells • Bilayer cells -Absorption and interference effects - Exciton diffusion - Electron transfer - Recombination - Charge Transport
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Review articles on organic PV cells • A. Hagfelt and Michael Grätzel, “Molecular Photovoltaics,” Acc. Chem. Research. 33 (2000) p. 269-277. This short review provides an excellent description of Grätzel cells and how they work. • Peter Peumans, Aharon Yakimov, Stephen Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. of App. Phys. 93 (2003) p. 3693-3723. • Brian A. Gregg “Excitonic Solar Cells” Journal of Physical Chemistry B , 107 (2003) p. 4688-98. Compares the theory of excitonic PV cells to that of conventional PV cells. • Kevin M. Coakley, Michael D. McGehee, “Conjugated Polymer Photovoltaic Cells,” Chemistry of Materials,16 (2004) p. 3533-42. Organic Photovoltaics: Mechanisms, Materials and Devices ( Marcel Dekker) is now available on Amazon. It costs $150, but I have a copy and can lend it out. • The January 2005 issue of the Materials Research Society Bulletin is devoted to organic PV cells. The reviews by Peumans and McGehee are available on the course website.
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Roll-to-Roll coating: A route to taking the costs below $50/m 2 and keeping efficiency > 10 %. P. Fairley, IEEE Spectrum. Jan. 2004 p.28 Current record efficiency = 6.5 %
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4 Organic semiconductor basics The carbon atoms are only bonded to three other atoms The fourth valence electron delocalizes out of the plane of the molecule and collectively forms π bonds Conjugation increases delocalization and decreases bandgap Twists and defects in the chains reduce the “conjugation length” Side chains can be attached to make the polymers soluble PPV DMO-PPV P3HT
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5 Doping conjugated polymers Energy Polymer Oxidizing agent (e.g. I 2 , Br 2 , AsF 5 ) e - Oxidizing agents act as p-type dopants, i.e. they generate holes in the polymer. 2000 Noble Prize in Chemistry See e.g. A.J. Heeger Reviews in Modern Physics 73 (2001) p.681.
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6 n-type doping Energy Polymer e - Reducing agents such as calcium and lithium can introduce electrons into the conduction band of a conjugated polymer.
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course MS&E 302 taught by Professor Mcghee during the Spring '08 term at Stanford.

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13.++Organic+PV+cells+1 - MSE 343 April 30, 2008 Organic...

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