Ch_22,19,44,43 - Microbes Monday, September 19, 2011 12:42...

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Microbes Monday, September 19, 2011 12:42 PM Viroids o Simpler than virus Consist of single strand of RNA No protein coat o Hijack cells o Infects primarily plant cells including citrus trees, potatoes, avocados, etc Prion o Protein particle that is folded wrong, causes other proteins to fold incorrectly o Does not have genetic information o Causes proteins in the brain to fold incorrectly Mad cow disease, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease and kuru Prokaryotes o Bacteria and archaea domains o 8000 species described, may be 100-1000 that number o First organisms to appear on earth, 3.5 billion years ago o Components Cell walls Semi-ridgid, permeable, made of peptidoglycan Gives bacteria shapes Shapes Bacilli, cocci, spirilla Capsule Highly organized, firmly attached to the cell wall Slime layer Less organized, loosely attached to cell wall Pili Hairlike structure on surface of bacteria which aid in attachment Rotating flagella Endospore Protective resting structures Bacteria surrounded by durable cell wall. Resistant to extreme condition o Reproduction Asexual in the form of binary fission Sexual in the form of conjugation using plasmid Sex pilli o Energy sources Autotrophs using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis Heterotrophs including symbioses o Diseases Gonorrhea, syphilis, Tuberculosis, Lyme disease o Antibiotic resistance Archaea vs. Bacteria o Similarities Singe cell
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Prokaryotic Small size o Differences Cell membrane lipid structure Cell wall composition Archaea have no peptidoglycan in the cell walls rRNA subunit sequences Extremophile o Archaea (many are extremophile, but not restricted to extreme habitats) Thermophiles Heat-loving archaea Halophiles Salt-loving Methanogens Methane-generating Occur in oxygen-free habitats o Bacteria Cave bacteria Sometimes reach acidity of pH 0.5 Using bacteria to improve life o Deinococcus radiodurans Survive 3000x more radiation than humans Tolerate extreme dehydration, heat, and cold Used to "chew up" toxic waste Exxon-Valdez oil spill "Super bacterium" Chapter 22 Monday, September 26, 2011 10:43 AM Mycelium o Feeding network of fungus o May be very large o Usually underground or inside a decaying or living organism o Woven mesh of mycelia matt
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course BIOL 1002 taught by Professor Pomarico during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Ch_22,19,44,43 - Microbes Monday, September 19, 2011 12:42...

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