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test2notes - -Start Test 2-9/15Ch 19 cont Prokaryotes...

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-Start Test 2- -9/15- Ch. 19 cont. Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea Domains 11,000 Species described, may be 100-1000x that number. 1 st organisms to appear on Earth, 3.5 billion years ago. o The majority of bacteria causes disease in plants, animals, etc. o The majority of bacteria DO NOT cause disease in homo sapiens. Cell Wall o Semi-rigid, permeable, made of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate with amino acids attached). Gives bacteria shapes. Design comes from the genome. Cell Wall Shapes: o Bacilli—rod shaped, Cocci, Spirilla—Spiral shaped. o Capsules and Slime walls Capsules—highly organized, firmly attached to cell well. Slime layer—less organized, loosely attached to cell wall. Pili o Hair-like structures on surface of bacteria which aid in attachment. Rotating Flagella Endospore o Protective “resting” structures, bacteria surrounded by durable cell wall. Resistant to extreme conditions. Reproduction o Asexual, binary fission. o Sexual in the form of conjugations using plasmids. Energy sources o Autotrophs using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. o Heterotrophs including symbiotes.
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Diseases caused by bacteria o Gonorrhea, syphilis, tuberculosis, Lyme disease. Antibiotic Resistance Bioremediation o Making the environment better for living organisms. Deinococcus Radiodurans Survive 3000x more radiation than humans. Tolerate extreme dehydration, heat, and cold. Used to “chew up” toxic waste Exxon-Valdez oil spill “Super Bacterium” -9/20- Salem Witch Trials IN 1692 Ergotism Ergots: Fungal resting bondies Ergot grows in rye and other grains. It causes ergotism which can include crawling sensation in the skin, tingling in the fingers, vertigo, ringing in the ears, headaches, hallucination, painful muscular contractions leading to convulsions, vomiting, and diarrhea. All of these symptoms are mentioned in the record of the Salem which trials. Ch. 20 The Fungi Structure Mycelium: the feeding network of a fungus. (body) o May be extremely large. o Usually found underground or inside a decaying or living organism. o Composed of a woven mesh of hyphae (chains of cells). Hyphae: the threadlike filaments of a fungus o Tubular cell wall containing chitin o Surrounds the plasma membrane and cytoplasm.
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Chitin o A Structural polysaccharide of modified sugars o Makes up insect excoskeletons & fungus cell walls. o Polymer with glucose subunits and Nitrogen containing functional groups. o ONLY in Fungi. Septa o Structures which partially separate the cytoplasm inside the hyphae, found in many fungi. Spores o Haploid cell which can grow directly into a hypha. o Can be produced sexually and asexually. Fungal Lifestyles Use absorption to obtain their food.
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