1-14-11 - Sections start week 3 Structural realism or...

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Sections start week 3 Structural realism or realism, 1 of 2 theories o The nature of power (what is power?) o Primacy of land power (over air or naval) o Subsets of structural realism o What types of systems of power and cults of war in each Balance of power o Main cause of Pelopennesian war is that Sparta feared that the other state was gaining too much power War as a result of a shift in balance of power o Theories: BOP is the most important indicator in int’l relations Hegemony realism vs. structural realism For structural realists, BOP is a good thing o BOP is natural; the system will revert to a BOP o 2 coalitions roughly the same (horizontal lines); this ensures peace o States will behave in ways that check and undermine BOP i.e. British foreign policy in the 17 th century For hegemonic realists, BOP is a bad thing. BOP war. When you have a hegemonic power, it can enforce peace o System tends to have a hegemonic power (good thing) o Time on the x axis, power on the y axis, an upward and downward sloping curves. Intersection = BOP Theories: o Concept of manner? o Domestic politics: hierarchy. Int’l: no unified entity w/ the ability to exert power (anarchy—absence of centralized power) o Material power matters a lot Material power o Latent power—capability to generate military power; function of GDP x # people. Size matters! o Military power—some states choose not to convert latent to military power, i.e. Europe o WWI: US did not have military power to participate in the conflict from the get- go Germany tried to end the war before the US could get there in time Difference b/w American latent and military power back then We spend > ½ the world’s military expenses For each dollar spent in the US, more than half goes to the military Around half discretionary federal spending o Britain had most powerful navy in the world at turn of 20 th century. Had to fight #2 and #3 countries combined if need be US navy today is more powerful than all other navies combined o So today, US latent power has been converted to military power
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Structural realists believe the world is governed by self help forced by conjunction of anarchy + military power o i.e. Better for S. Korea to have the ability to defend itself (perpetuates the problem) o Relative power matters Absolute power does not. So any power change is a 0 sum change? o Tendency for emulation; for states to imitate the best states (i.e. Chinese stealth fighters) o BOP is a good thing, so behavior of choice for states in an anarchical and self- help world is balanced o Balance = creation of military power thru internal mobilization or the forging of alliances in order to prevent territorial occupation / military domination of another state o i.e. US could not fight Soviet Union on its own NATO o Purpose of balancing = prevent hegemony
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course PLSC 126 taught by Professor Nunomonterio during the Spring '11 term at Yale.

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1-14-11 - Sections start week 3 Structural realism or...

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