1-31-11 - 1/31/11 1. Shift of BOP from US entering the war...

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1/31/11 1. Shift of BOP from US entering the war 2. US enters the war as an attempt by Germans to shift the BOP in their favor by submarine warfare Germans realized that the western front is unwinnable –the only way to win is to cut British power by “strangulating” the British Isles attacks on supplies by sea to Britain o US enters the war o German realizes that they can’t win 1914 and 18 = mobile warfare on the west, trench warfare in 1517 1914: Germans focused on west. 15: east, 16: west, 17: east, 18: west Chronology of western, eastern, and other fronts, and war at sea Mobile until First Battle of Ypres First battle of the Marne (1916) is where the German offensive is stopped. Germans then try to go ot the British channel to split the British expeditionary force from the French; fail. Then the war is immobile on western front until 1918 Verdun (offensive by Germans against French), Somme (British attempt to suck in German forces to take pressure off French at Verdun) 1917 o Nivelle offensive produced only minimal gains against Germans w/ large losses o French morale suffers and many desertions 1917: US enters war b/c 2 nd blockade of UK by Germany o US had only traded w/ Allies because they controlled the seas o Lusitania sunk o Attempt by British army to get out of the stalemate o Russian revolutions: 1 st and 2 nd (Bolshevik) 1917 3 rd battle of Ypres at Passchendaele o Massive casualties on both sides; British win 1917 Russian revolutions: o 1 st : Tsar abdicates and provisional gov’t organized War effort still horrible angered public o 2 nd : Provisional gov’t overrun by Bolshevik revolution 1918 o Beginning: Allies not in a good position March 1918: Brest-Litovsk treaty o Germans have to rush to finish the eastern war to focus on the west? o Russian concessions to the Germans = 34% of population, etc (on handout) o So though Germany complains that Versailles is too harsh, Brest-Litovsk is far worse Ludendorff offensives: o March: Germans start the final push, get very close to Paris o 2 nd miracle of the Marne during the Allies’ successful counterattack (Amiens offensive)
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o Also German morale very low o Germans know they can’t win Bulgaria forced out of war, Turkey collapses September: Ludendorff asks gov’t to negotiate a peace treaty Cease fire scheduled for 11:11am on 11/11/1918 o Allied gov’ts want an armistice, but their generals want unconditional surrender and total victory o Armistice made HUGE demands of Germans AND led to anti-Jew feeling Stalemates and tactical strategy
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1-31-11 - 1/31/11 1. Shift of BOP from US entering the war...

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