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Unformatted text preview: 3/21/2011 How and why the Cold War ended Review: o Bipolar introduction of nuclear weapons. o Also, do nukes take away the prospect of war? If so, BOP matters less b/c military power cannot be used to achieve state purpose. 1. What caused the crisis of the Soviet Union? 2. What caused the reforms? 3 and 4. What caused the reforms to fail and lead to the collapse of the Soviet system? 2 dictatorships lead up to Gorbachev, Chernobyl, overtures of the West during Reagan (+ Gorbachev) By 1989 the USSR decides it will not use military power to put down revolts in satellite states, unlike in 50s-70s Dec 1. 1991: USSR dissolves, but the Cold War ended in 1989 What led to the reforms, and why they failed: o b/w 45 90, US starts with far higher GDP (80% of the sum of the two) o By 60, US has 2/3. Soviets never have more than half. Here is the deep root of the problem o To keep up with US military expenditures, they must spend twice % GDP b/c their GDP is half of ours o In the 80s , Soviet GDP does not decline before the collapse of the USSR . The reforms themselves cause the GDP decline Explanations for collapse: o 1. Structural 1. Structure of Soviet politics. Internal contradictions; USSR made no sense. cant predict timing of events Reforms failed b/c Gorbachev tried to open up economic system a little w/o changing the one party and central economic structure 2.Success of Soviet system; they were so good at urbanizing, educating, bureaucratizing that in 1985, they require economic and political systems...
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- Spring '11
- Balance Of Power