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chapters ns202

chapters ns202 - http/www.prenhall.com/withgott Chapter 1...

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http://www.prenhall.com/withgott/ Chapter 1: EARTH INTRODUCTION: I. Environment: a. Environment: Includes all the living and nonliving things around us with which we interact b. Commonly used to describe the “natural” world apart from human society instead of the real meaning which encompasses everything – human, nonhuman, living, nonliving c. Environmental Science: the study of how the natural world works, how our environment affects us, and how we affect our environment. i. Useful to find solutions to pressing environmental problems d. Natural Resources: various substances and energy sources we need to survive i. Renewable resources: virtually unlimited or are replenished over short periods. Example: sunlight, wind, wave energy ii. Nonrenewable resources: resources which are formed much more slowly than we use them. Example: mineral ores and crude oil. iii. Human population growth has shaped resource use 1. Two triggers to increases in population size. a. Agricultural Revolution: transition of the human race from hunter- gatherer lifestyles to agricultural. Occurred 10,000 years ago approximately. b. Industrial Revolution: Began in the mid 1700s. Shifted human life from rural, animal powered, hand craftsman to urban society powered by fossil fuels. II. Thomas Malthus a. British economist claimed that population growth needed to be controlled to ensure people wouldn’t outgrow the available food supply. III. Paul Ehrlich a. Biologist of Stanford University who has been called “neo-Malthusian” because he agreed that population growth could have negative impacts. b. He predicted rapid growth would unleash widespread famine and conflict that would consume civilization by the end of the 20 th century c. Still agrees that this problem is inevitable if things don’t change.. simply postponed reaction due to agricultural advances. IV. Garret Hardin a. University of CA at Santa Barbara disputed that resources that are open to unregulated exploitation will eventually be depleted
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b. “The tragedy of commons” V. Wackernagel and Rees a. Ecological footprint”: used to describe the environmental impact of an individual or population in terms of the cumulative amount of land and water required to A) provide raw materials for all the goods the person or population consumes and B) dispose of or recycle all the waste. i. Measures the total amount of earth’s surface “used” by the given person or population. b. Wackernagel and Rees calculated our species is using 30% more resources than are available on a sustainable basis. VI. Easter Island a. Located in the Pacific Ocean b. Found in 1722 with only 2,000 inhabitants but huge stone structures that required many more people. c. Scientific research suggests the island was once forested and had a society of 6-30k people.
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