notes 342008 - 3/4/08 Applied Science deals with...

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3/4/08 Applied Science deals with epiphenomena. Applied science continues to use the method. Care about control. Pure scientist: wants to get from necessary to sufficient causes. Pure scientist: job is prediction. Weakness of physicians method: Hummes 3 criteria, Malaria: caused by a Gambia, slash n burn, bad air…does not appear. Physicians method does not let us identify a necessary cause. Pure science responds by: stating the word ‘cause’ is ambiguous, and because pure science does not use ambiguous terms, they abandon the word cause, and substitute the word Independent Variable. Pure science abandoned the method. Ambiguity: Cause-invokes ambiguity, because 2 types of cause. The method we don’t like the physicians method, despite the fact that we have the conceptual problem: Research scientist constantly thinks about the cause of the event. John Stuart Mill: 19 th century, he thought about what cause is/is not. He thought about how we might go about knowing cause (demonstrating causal between 2 events). He set down philosophical methods we use in all sciences. These 6 points, not science they are philosophy! We will never ever be able to meet Mill’s standards in the real world. He is solving problem of how do we know the cause. 1. Method of agreement-first go out and observe in real world- look for one effect- observing effect and stuff that precedes it. (Effect precedes cause). Look for one preceding effect that every has in common. That cause is the epiphenomenon. Common element is the sufficient cause of the effect. Example) epiphenomena called Juvenile Deliquincy. Start with young males in real world. Assign to 2 groups- law breakers and non law breakers. Ignore those who non law breakers, observe deliquints. Observe their delinquency not the boys themselves. The effect- the delinquiny itself. Observe and find that every boy comes from broken home. None of non delinquents come from broken home. Sufficient cause= broken home.
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notes 342008 - 3/4/08 Applied Science deals with...

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