earthquake - Earthquakes Earthquakes Golcuk, Turkey; 1999...

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Earthquakes Earthquakes Golcuk, Turkey; 1999
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Earthquake Earthquake s s There are ~1 million earthquakes each year. Of these, small percent can be felt very far from their source.
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Effects of the 1994 Northridge, CA, Earthquake 20 miles NW of LA; Magnitude = 6.7 $44 billion in damage
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Earthquakes Earthquakes Natural shaking or vibration of ground in response to breaking of rocks along a fault. Rapid release of energy. Intense vibrations called seismic waves travel outward from spot where rock breaks.
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Seismic Waves Radiate from Seismic Waves Radiate from Focus of Earthquake Focus of Earthquake
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Earthquake Earthquake Terms Terms Focus (Hypocenter ): site of initial rupture; can be as deep as 700 km. Epicenter: point on surface above focus. Slip: distance of displacement or offset along fault.
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1988 Armenian Earthquake Fault Scarp mag = 6.8 45,000 dead, 500,000 homeless
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Stress - force per unit area Stress - force per unit area Types of directed stresses include: Types of directed stresses include: Compression - convergent plate boundary Compression - convergent plate boundary Extension - divergent plate boundary Extension - divergent plate boundary Shear - transform fault plate boundary Shear - transform fault plate boundary What Causes Faulting? What Causes Faulting?
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Tectonic Forces and Tectonic Forces and Resulting Deformation Resulting Deformation Type of Plate Boundaries Type of Plate Boundaries Convergent Divergent Transform
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Distribution of Distribution of Earthquakes Earthquakes Large % focused around plate boundaries. Small % occur within plate interiors.
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Earthquakes cluster along plate boundaries Where on Earth… Where on Earth…
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Earthquakes at Divergent and Earthquakes at Divergent and Transform Margins Transform Margins
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Earthquakes Associated with Earthquakes Associated with Convergent Plate Margins Convergent Plate Margins
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Elastic Rebound Theory (1910) - Earthquake Cycle Elastic Rebound Theory (1910) - Earthquake Cycle
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10_08.jpg 10_08.jpg
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1906 San Francisco Earthquake modified Merc. Intensity VII-IX; lasted 45-60 seconds
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Fault Trace Fault Offset (~2.5m) 1906 San Francisco Earthquake 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
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Earthquake “Cycle” Earthquake “Cycle” 1) Long period of seismic inactivity. 2) Strain build up along fault. 3) Foreshocks - small earthquakes preceding major earthquake. 4) Major rupture and earthquake along fault. 5) Aftershocks - smaller earthquakes produced by additional movements several days after main earthquake.
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Seismology Seismology Study of earthquake waves.
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course SCIENCE 460:100 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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earthquake - Earthquakes Earthquakes Golcuk, Turkey; 1999...

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