minerals-1 - Minerals Minerals Minerals Economically...

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Minerals Minerals
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Minerals Economically important – Drive world economies. Historically important – Dictated human history. Iron Copper Gold Diamonds Gems
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What is a Mineral? What is a Mineral? A naturally occurring, “inorganic” solid, with an ordered internal structure and fixed chemical composition. Quartz SiO 2
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Crystalline Structure Atoms in a mineral are specifically ordered. Crystalline structure are based on atomic patterns.
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Rocks Rocks are Earth materials made from minerals. Most rocks have more than one kind of mineral. A naturally occurring, solid, aggregate of minerals.
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How do Minerals How do Minerals Form? Form?
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Atoms
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Atomic Bonding Lattice atoms are held in place by atomic bonds. Bond characteristics govern mineral properties. 5 recognized types of bonds. Covalent Ionic Metallic Van der Waals Hydrogen
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What is an What is an Ion? Ion? An atom that has either lost or gained electron(s), thereby becoming electrically charged.
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anions anions charge charge cations cations charge charge O -2 Si +4 K +1 Ca +2 Na +1 Al +3 Mg +2 Fe +2, +3 Why are ions important? Why are ions important?
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Ionic Bond Ionic Bond Bond between oppositely charged ions. “Relatively” weak bond.
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Atomic Packing Ionic size (radius) and charge control packing. Ion – Atom charged due to gain or loss of an electron. Cation – Positive ion due to loss of electron(s). Anion – Negative ion due to gain of electron(s).
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Atomic Packing Anions and cations bond to neutralize charges. Anion – Cation “fit” governed by relative size. Large central cation – Larger number of anions. Small central cation – Smaller number of anions.
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NaCl (Halite) - Ionic Bond NaCl (Halite) - Ionic Bond
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Size of Ions Determine Packing Geometry
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Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Bond with shared electrons.
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course SCIENCE 460:100 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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minerals-1 - Minerals Minerals Minerals Economically...

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