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14+politeness - Politeness Theory Politeness Introduction...

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Politeness Theory Politeness Introduction * communication: bias toward solidarity Avianca Flight: What is the Problem here? see transcript Gilmore Girls: What is the Problem here? Origins of Politeness Theory * Erving Goffman * the “self” is sacred * facework Brown & Levinson’s Politeness Theory * ritual constraints on interaction * Face Threatening Acts (FTAs) Two Types of Face * positive (+)face desire to have an affirmative self image * negative (–)face desire not to be imposed on by others e.g., performing a request (FTA) Getting someone to take out the trash :
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1. “Take out the trash” On-record direct request, no politeness 2. “Be a sweetie and take out the trash” Direct request, positive (+)politeness 3a. “Please take out the trash” Direct request, negative (-)politeness 3b. “Are you able to take out the trash?” Indirect request (-politeness) 4. “Gee, the trash is overflowing” Off-record request X. “Take out the fu#&*ing trash!” Aggravated direct request FTA Tables Threats to Positive Face FTA example FTA type Politeness Strategy
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