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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 23 Covalent Bonding To find truth you have to try and you have to persist in trying. Sometimes its fun. Sometimes its hard or boring. But its always worth it. . . . The Creator of the universe has implanted a message in every created thing. Geology, astronomy, physicsall science is really nothing more than an effort to read those messages. ~ Henry Eyring Quiz: Did you read Chapter 23 for today? a) Yes b) No Earth p. 3 Review of bond types s Metallic bonding: many atoms collectively share orbitals and electrons s Ionic bonding: metals easily give up electrons to nonmetals, which want them s Today add a 3 rd type: covalent bonding Molecular Orbitals s Orbitals are electron probability standing waves s Shape of orbital depends on placement of the different nuclei. s New standing wave patterns (new shapes) when there are multiple nuclei s Molecular orbitals follow same rules as atomic orbitals: 2 e- / orbital (opposite spins) Fill lowest energy orbitals first Atomic orbitals Molecular orbitals s p d f p. 5 Sharing Electrons to Form Covalent Bonds s Resulting molecular orbitals are lower in energy than atomic orbitals s Often corresponds to filled shells for each atom in bond s Result: usually molecules rather than network structures. s Standard Example: H + H H 2 Covalent Bonding s Nonmetals dont want to give up electrons so they share them when bonding with other nonmetals, forming c o v a l e n t b o n d s . s There are three ways to draw a single bond caused by sharing electrons: H - H H:H We will use this 1 H 1 H + = H 2 Examples s O 2 : There are 2 open valence slots. So each oxygen atom can form two bonds. s O 2 has two bonds and we draw s O = O 1s 2s 2p Examples s N 2 : There are 3 open valence slots. So each atom can form three bonds s N 2 has three bonds and we draw s N N s Notice that in both cases (O, N) each atom has access to 8 electrons in the valence shell....
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2011 for the course PHY S 100 taught by Professor Staff during the Winter '08 term at BYU.
- Winter '08