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Unformatted text preview: 1052 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 17, NO. 4, AUGUST 2009 PRIME: Peer-to-Peer Receiver-Driven Mesh-Based Streaming Nazanin Magharei and Reza Rejaie , Senior Member, IEEE Abstract The success of file swarming mechanisms such as BitTorrent has motivated a new approach for scalable streaming of live content that we call mesh-based Peer-to-Peer (P2P) streaming. In this approach, participating end-systems (or peers) form a randomly connected mesh and incorporate swarming content delivery to stream live content. Despite the growing popularity of this approach, neither the fundamental design tradeoffs nor the basic performance bottlenecks in mesh-based P2P streaming are well understood. In this paper, we follow a performance-driven approach to design PRIME, a scalable mesh-based P2P streaming mechanism for live content. The main design goal of PRIME is to minimize two performance bottlenecks, namely bandwidth bottleneck and content bottleneck . We show that the global pattern of delivery for each segment of live content should consist of a diffusion phase which is followed by a swarming phase. This leads to effective utilization of available resources to accommodate scalability and also minimizes content bottleneck. Using packet level simulations, we carefully examine the impact of overlay connectivity, packet scheduling scheme at individual peers and source behavior on the overall performance of the system. Our results reveal fundamental design tradeoffs of mesh-based P2P streaming for live content. Index Terms Communication systems, computer networks, multimedia communication, multimedia systems, Internet. I. INTRODUCTION P EER-TO-PEER (P2P) overlays offer a promising ap- proach to stream live video from a single source to a large number of receivers (or peers) over the Internet without any special support from the network. This approach is often called P2P streaming . The goal of P2P streaming mechanisms is to deliver high quality stream to individual peers in a scalable fashion. To gracefully scale with the number of participating peers in a session, a P2P streaming mechanism should be able to effectively utilize the contributed resources (namely outgoing bandwidth) of individual peers. Achieving this goal is challenging due to the heterogeneity and asymmetry of access link bandwidth as well as the dynamics of participation (i.e., churn) among peers. A well known approach to P2P streaming is organizing partic- ipating peers into multiple, diverse tree-shaped overlays where each specific sub-stream of the live content is pushed through a particular tree from source to all interested peers (e.g., [1]). Manuscript received December 25, 2007; revised June 27, 2008; approved by IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING Editor M. Hofmann. First pub- lished March 21, 2009; current version published August 19, 2009. This ma- terial is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under NSF CAREER Award CNS-0448639. An earlier version of this paper appearedNSF CAREER Award CNS-0448639....
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