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Unformatted text preview: 2 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 17, NO. 1, JANUARY 2007 Multiple Tree Video Multicast Over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Wei Wei and Avideh Zakhor , Fellow, IEEE Abstract In this paper, we propose multiple tree construction schemes and routing protocols for video streaming over wireless ad hoc networks. The basic idea is to split the video into multiple parts and send each part over a different tree, which are con- structed to be disjoint with each other so as to increase robustness to loss and other transmission degradations. Specifically, we pro- pose two novel multiple tree multicast protocols. Our first scheme constructs two disjoint multicast trees in a serial, but distributed fashion, and is referred to as serial multiple disjoint tree multicast routing protocol. It achieves reasonable tree connectivity while maintaining disjointness of two trees. In order to reduce routing overhead and construction delay, we further propose parallel multiple nearly-disjoint multicast trees protocol, which is also shown to achieve reasonable tree connectivity. Simulations show that resulting video quality for either scheme is significantly higher than that of single tree multicast, with similar routing overhead and forwarding efficiency. Index Terms Multicast, video streaming, wireless ad hoc net- works. I. INTRODUCTION W ITH the increase in the bandwidth of wireless channels and in the computational power of mobile devices, video applications are expected to become available on wireless ad hoc networks in a near future. Examples of video communica- tion applications over wireless ad hoc networks include sponta- neous video conferencing at a location without wireless infra- structure, transmitting video on the battlefield, and search and rescue operations after a disaster. Video communication is fundamentally different from data communication, since interactive video applications are delay and loss sensitive. Unlike data packets, late arriving video packets are useless to the video decoder. Thus, the retransmission techniques are not generally applicable to video communication applications with low delay requirements, especially in multicast situations. There are additional challenges for supporting video com- munication over wireless ad hoc networks. Due to the mobility of wireless nodes, the topology of ad hoc networks may change frequently. Thus, the established connection routes between senders and receivers are likely to be broken during video transmission, causing interruptions, freezes, or jerkiness in the Manuscript received March 16, 2006; revised August 7, 2006. This paper was recommended by Associate Editor O. Wu....
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2011 for the course CIS 6930 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.
- Fall '08