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Unformatted text preview: 1466 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA, VOL. 11, NO. 8, DECEMBER 2009 Reliable Application Layer Multicast Over Combined Wired and Wireless Networks Masahiro Kobayashi , Member, IEEE , Hidehisa Nakayama , Member, IEEE , Nirwan Ansari , Fellow, IEEE , and Nei Kato , Senior Member, IEEE Abstract During the last several years, the Internet has evolved from a wired infrastructure to a hybrid of wired and wireless domains by spreading worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), Wi-Fi, and cellular networks. Therefore, there is a growing need to facilitate reliable content delivery over such heterogeneous networks. On the other hand, application layer mul- ticast(ALM)hasbecomeapromisingapproachforstreamingmedia content from a server to a large number of interested nodes. ALM nodes construct a multicast tree and deliver the stream through this tree. However, if a node leaves, it cannot deliver the stream to its descendant nodes. In this case, quality-of-service (QoS) is compromised dramatically. Especially, this problem is exacerbated in wireless networks because of packet errors and handovers. In order to cope with this problem, multiple-tree multicasts have been proposed. However, existing methods fail to deliver contents reliably in combined wired and wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a method to ensure the robustness of node departure, while meeting various bandwidth constraints by using layered multiple description coding (LMDC). Finally, we evaluate the proposed method via extensive simulations by using the network simulator (ns-2).Bycomparingourproposedmethodwiththeexistingones,we demonstratethatourmethodprovidesbetterperformanceinterms oftotalthroughput,relativedelaypenalty(RDP),andrelativedelay variation (RDV). The results indicate that our approach is a more reliablecontentdeliverysystemwhencomparedwithcontemporary methods inthecontext of heterogeneousnetworkscontainingwired and wireless environments. Index Terms Application layer multicast, heterogeneous networks, layered multiple description coding, wired/wireless networks. I. INTRODUCTION W ITH the widespread availability of inexpensive broad- band Internet connections for home users, many content delivery applications have now become practical. The choice Manuscript received March 12, 2009; revised August 14, 2009. First pub- lished September 22, 2009; current version published November 18, 2009. This work was supported in part through the strategic international cooperative pro- gram between the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and the National Science Foundation Cyber Trust (NSF) under grant no. 0726549. The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publica- tion was Dr. Zhihai (Henry) He....
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2011 for the course CIS 6930 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.
- Fall '08