Chpt%2020-1

Chpt%2020-1 - Thermodynamics 20.1 - 20.3 20.1 Spontaneous...

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Thermodynamics 20.1 - 20.3
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20.1 Spontaneous Spontaneous: something that occurs without a consistent outside influence If something is spontaneous, the reverse process is non-spontaneous Spontaneous does not mean quick
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20.1 Spontaneity What will be spontaneous? 2 nd Law of Thermo: all processes increase the over-all entropy of the universe Entropy (S): measure of disorder S = k ln(W) Constant 1.28 * 10 -23 J/K Number of “microstates” available (possible positions of equal energy) A gas would have more “microstates” than a solid
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20.1 Entropy Second Law of Thermo : ∆S universe = ∆S system + ∆S surr > 0 So will the process in the system be spontaneous? ∆S system tells us nothing about spontaneity We’ll need both ∆S system and ∆S surr , we’ll get back to it
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There are S 0 values that rate the entropy of a molecule at 298 K in J/mol-K – Like ∆H f from Chem 1211 Some facts: Higher temp leads to higher S Change phase (
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Chpt%2020-1 - Thermodynamics 20.1 - 20.3 20.1 Spontaneous...

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