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5.Airline Flight Deck Communications

5.Airline Flight Deck Communications - The Ecology of...

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1 The Ecology of Language Practices in Worldwide Airline Flight Deck Operations Edwin Hutchins and Saeko Nomura Department of Cognitive Science, UCSD Barbara Holder Flight Deck Concepts Center, Boeing Commercial Airplanes Launching the Boeing 787 as an airplane for the world’s pilots A cognitive question ! What can be done to make the 787 flight deck an effective working environment for all pilots? " Flight deck design " Operational procedures " Training ! What role do language and culture play in the organization of the behavior of airline pilots world-wide? Regional Accident Rates Patterns of Language Use in the Global Pilot Population ! What are the observed patterns of language use? " When do pilots use their native language and when do they use some other language? ! What accounts for the distribution of language use? " Why do pilots sometimes use their native language and sometimes use some other language? !"#$% ’(")* Revenue Flights FFS Training # of flights #of pilots observed Hours observed # of pilots Japan Aug 2005 22 legs 22 pilots 15 hours 7 pilots May 2007 ------ ------ 8 4 N. America Oct 2005 ------ ------ 37 3 New Zealand Nov 2005 21 14 4 2 Oct 2006 11 12 8 4 Brazil Aug 2007 16 16 10 6 +,- ./0 /12 !32 452
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2 Data Collection in Simulator 1. Record briefing/debriefing sessions (digital audio) 2. Record simulator sessions (digital video) with two lapel microphones (Captain and FO) 3. Digitize data to PC ! From MiniDV -> avi file -> MPG 4. Transcribe using Excel (Japanese and English) 5. Analyze data " Analytical foci: ! Language use ! Coordination of information (e.g. loading FMS, performing non-normal checklist, etc) ! Crew coordination Data Collection in Actual Flights ! Each flight was observed by two researchers ! While observing… " Take notes and photos " Collect paperwork ! Dispatch papers, ATIS printouts and written notes " Fill out EOI (event observation information) and paper distribution forms ! After the observation… " Audio record a debriefing with co-observer to discuss what we saw in the flight deck " Dictate audio annotations of the photos we took in the flight deck ! After the fieldwork… " Digitize all paper data " Transcribe audio debrief and annotations " Merge handwritten notes with debriefing and annotations to create the final field notes Our Field Notes 1. Digitize (scanned) all related maps, charts, and collected papers.
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