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7.Designing Future Enviroments

7.Designing Future Enviroments - Designing in a world gone...

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Designing in a world gone digital David Kirsh Dept of Cognitive Science UCSD
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The Big Challenge Goal : Design more efficient, effective, experientially rich environments Method : Make sense of people’s daily practices & experience so as to inform design and innovation. Understand the cognitive, neural, and cultural bases for these daily practices. GOAL METHOD
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Topics PART ONE Designing for Efficiency ú Is Efficient design good design? Designing for Experience ú Major trends: Technology, Social Designing for Effectiveness PART TWO How cognitive science is changing our conception of people PART THREE Implications for Design CONCLUSIONS
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PART ONE
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Designing for Efficiency
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An early drawing of kitchen efficiency Lillian Gilbreth 1928 - wife of famous efficiency expert Frank Gilbreth (Cheaper by the Dozen)
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Efficiency: When is one environment better than another?
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1. Architectural structure 2. Furniture 3. Artifact ecologies 4. Superposition of persistent state of artifacts What are Environments? Persistent states Environment as Niche for activities
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Artifact ecologies Architectural structure Furniture/ Technology
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What do people do in their environments? Observe closely – video cameras, ethnographic study A good environment will support all activities
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So when is E1 > E2 Answer: relative to a set of routines / activities there are behavioral and cognitive measures Pragmatic Efficiency ú Faster ú Fewer Errors ú Agents can do more complex things in them ú Fewer serious errors – less variance ú Subjects learn their routines faster Cognitive Efficiency ú Think better, faster ú Recall better ú Navigate more easily ú More creative ú Less cognitive overload ú Project more easily Cognitive & Neural Measures Behavioral Measures
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Behavioral Measures
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Speed Accuracy of Routines Probability of error Time 1 0 Better Speed Accuracy of Routine E1 > E2 if routines are faster with fewer errors Faster with fewer errors
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Faster – fewer errors
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Complexity of Routines Probability of error Time 1 0 Complexity of Routines Acceptable Error Acceptable Time Acceptable C 2 C 1 C 3 C 4 E1 > E2 if subjects can do more complex things just as fast 
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Variance of Routines – Quality Variance Time 1 0 Variance of Routines Acceptable Variance Acceptable Time Acceptable V 2 V 1 V 3 V 4   Reduce the variance and output is more reliable   5 errors 5 errors > Sam error rate but better score
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Learning of Routines Expertise Time Weak support for learning Medium support for learning Strong support for learning E1 > E2 if routines are learned faster
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Pragmatic efficiency Evaluation: at best, evaluators of environments consider pragmatic measures ú In reality: a small subset of these measures
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Cognitive Measures
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Efficiency: Pragmatic vs. Cognitive Pragmatic Efficiency ú Faster ú Fewer Errors ú Agents can do more complex things in them ú Fewer serious errors – less variance ú Subjects learn their Cognitive Efficiency ú Think better, faster ú
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