7.Designing Future Enviroments

7.Designing Future Enviroments - Designing in a world gone...

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Unformatted text preview: Designing in a world gone digital David Kirsh Dept of Cognitive Science UCSD The Big Challenge Goal : Design more efficient, effective, experientially rich environments Method : Make sense of people’s daily practices & experience so as to inform design and innovation. Understand the cognitive, neural, and cultural bases for these daily practices. GOAL METHOD Topics PART ONE – Designing for Efficiency ú Is Efficient design good design? – Designing for Experience ú Major trends: Technology, Social – Designing for Effectiveness PART TWO – How cognitive science is changing our conception of people PART THREE – Implications for Design CONCLUSIONS PART ONE Designing for Efficiency An early drawing of kitchen efficiency Lillian Gilbreth 1928 - wife of famous efficiency expert Frank Gilbreth (Cheaper by the Dozen) Efficiency: When is one environment better than another? 1. Architectural structure 2. Furniture 3. Artifact ecologies 4. Superposition of persistent state of artifacts What are Environments? Persistent states Environment as Niche for activities Artifact ecologies Architectural structure Furniture/ Technology What do people do in their environments? – Observe closely – video cameras, ethnographic study – A good environment will support all activities So when is E1 > E2 – Answer: relative to a set of routines / activities there are behavioral and cognitive measures Pragmatic Efficiency ú Faster ú Fewer Errors ú Agents can do more complex things in them ú Fewer serious errors – less variance ú Subjects learn their routines faster Cognitive Efficiency ú Think better, faster ú Recall better ú Navigate more easily ú More creative ú Less cognitive overload ú Project more easily Cognitive & Neural Measures Behavioral Measures Behavioral Measures Speed Accuracy of Routines Probability of error Time 1 Better Speed Accuracy of Routine E1 > E2 if routines are faster with fewer errors Faster with fewer errors Faster – fewer errors Complexity of Routines Probability of error Time 1 Complexity of Routines Acceptable Error Acceptable Time Acceptable C 2 C 1 C 3 C 4 E1 > E2 if subjects can do more complex things just as fast Variance of Routines – Quality Variance Time 1 Variance of Routines Acceptable Variance Acceptable Time Acceptable V 2 V 1 V 3 V 4 Reduce the variance and output is more reliable 5 errors 5 errors > Sam error rate but better score Learning of Routines Expertise Time Weak support for learning Medium support for learning Strong support for learning E1 > E2 if routines are learned faster Pragmatic efficiency – Evaluation: at best, evaluators of environments consider pragmatic measures ú In reality: a small subset of these measures Cognitive Measures Efficiency: Pragmatic vs. Cognitive Pragmatic Efficiency ú Faster ú Fewer Errors ú Agents can do more complex things in them ú Fewer serious errors – less variance Cognitive Efficiency ú Think better, faster...
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This note was uploaded on 11/30/2011 for the course ECON 311 taught by Professor Zambrano during the Fall '08 term at Cal Poly.

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7.Designing Future Enviroments - Designing in a world gone...

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