Unformatted text preview: 1.00 Lecture 29
Graphs
Shortest Path Algorithms Reading for next time: Big Java 15.115.4 Graphs and Networks
• Graph G(N, A) is two sets:
– N is the set of nodes 0..n1
– A is the set of arcs, or pairs of nodes ij, i !=j • Graphs can be directed or undirected
1 0 Directed
<0, 1>
<1, 0> 0 1 Undirected
(0, 1) • A network is a graph with a cost associated with each
arc in A.
– We generally don’t permit negative arc costs.
• Negative cycles are problematic • There are two kinds of networks in this world…
– Electrical and its kin…and traffic and its kin… 1 Networks
• In an undirected network:
– Node i is adjacent to node j if arc ij exists
– Degree of node is number of adjacent nodes • In a directed network:
–
–
–
– Node i is adjacentto node j if arc ij exists
Node i is adjacentfrom node j if arc ji exists
Indegree of node is number of adjacentfrom nodes
Outdegree of node is number of adjacentto nodes 0
3 Outdegree of node 3= 4
Indegree of node 3= 0 1 0 1 0 adjacentto 1
1 adjacentfrom 0 4
2 List representation of graphs
• Adjacency list of graph is n lists, one for each
node i
– Adjacency list contains node(s) adjacent from i
– Variation holds nodes adjacentto i 0 Head 1 Arc
Node 0
2 3 4 2 3
4 4 Arc
Node
3 2 1 1
2 Arc
Node null null
1 null Head holds reference from each node i to
the adjacent node list. Arc order arbitrary 2 Exercise
• Draw the list representation for the
following graph with 4 nodes and 5 arcs:
Head
0 1 2 3 0
1
2
3 Array representation of graphs
• If no insertion or deletion of nodes and arcs is to be
done (or is rare), we dispense with the links and list.
– If we read the arcs from input and sort by ‘from’ node, we get:
From
0
0
0
1
3
3 To
1
2
3
2
4
1 Cost
43
52
94
22
71
37 0 1 2 (Arc number)
0
1
2
3
4
5 3 4 – Notice the from node repeats when outdegree > 1 • We recast this structure as arrays H, To, Cost:
(Node)
0
1
2
3
4
5 H
0
3
4
4
6
6 (sentinel) (Arc)
0
1
2
3
4
5 To
1
2
3
2
4
1 Cost
43
52
94
22
71
37 3 Exercise: Array Representation
– Fill in the array representation for the graph (4 nodes, 5 arcs):
From To
(Arc number)
0
0
1
1
2
3
2
3
4 (Node) H 0
1
2
3
4
(sentinel) (Arc) To 0
1
2
3
4
(last arc+1) Exercise: SmallGraph
• Write a program to create and print the small
graph you’ve just modeled 0 – Use the array representation
2
– Create class SmallGraph with just a main() method. In it: 1 3 • Create array H (use the {…} syntax for it)
• Create array To (also use the {…} syntax)
• Create a variable= number of actual nodes
– Don’t count the sentinel! • Print out the arcs in the graph
– Loop through all the actual nodes (use the H array)
» Loop through the arcs out of each node (use the To
array) and print them – The main() method is about 6 lines of code 4 Shortest paths in networks
• Shortest path algorithm:
– Builds shortest path tree
– From a root node
– To all other nodes in the network. • All shortest path algorithms are labeling algorithms
– Labeling is process of finding:
• Cost from root at each node (its label), and
• Predecessor node on path from root to node • Algorithm needs two data structures:
– Find arcs out of each node
• Arraybased representation of graph itself – Keep track of candidate nodes to add to shortest path tree
• Candidate list (queue) of nodes as they are:
– Discovered and/or
– Revisited Example
(Label, predecessor) Root (4, b)
(5, b) (2, d)
(3, a) (0, null)
3 a 1 b 2 c 1
d (1, a) Thick arcs are
shortest path tree with
distances and predecessors 5 Types of shortest path algorithms
– Label setting. If arc is added to shortest path tree, it is
permanent.
• Dijkstra (1959) is standard label setting algorithm.
• Fastest for dense networks with average outdegree ~> 30
• Requires heap (or sorted) arcs, which is slowest step – Label correcting. If arc is added to tree, it may be altered
later if better path if found.
• Series of algorithms, each faster, depending on how candidate
list is managed. Fastest when outdegree ~< 30
– BellmanFord (1958). New node discovered always put on back of
candidate list and next node taken from front of list. (Queue)
– D’EsopoPape (1974). New node put on front of candidate list if it
has been on list before, otherwise on back (‘Sharp labels’)
– Bertsekas (1992). New node put on front of candidate list if its
label smaller than current front node, otherwise on back
– HaoKocur (1992). New node is put on front of list if it has been on
list before. Otherwise it is put on back of list if label > front node
and on front of list if smaller. (‘Sharp labels’) – Previous example was label correcting
• Label setting requires looking at shortest arc at every step Computational results
CPU times (in milliseconds) on road networks
(HP9000720 workstation, 1992)
Nodes Arcs Visit Dijkstra Bellman D’Esopo Bertsekas HaoKocur 5199 14642 13 98 42 37 21 19 28917 64844 96 1192 590 125 144 104 115812 250808 459 9007 5644 619 789 497 119995 271562 488 13352 7651 708 1183 596 187152 410338 779 27483 15067 1184 1713 926 Times are 300x faster today (hardware Moore’s Law).
Also, slow implementations run 100x slower (lists, sorts, etc.) 6 Worst case, average performance
Algorithm Worst case Average case Labelcorrecting O(2n) ~O(n) Labelsetting O(n2) with sorting
O(a lg n) with heap O(a lg n) with heap (a= no of arcs, n= no of nodes) It takes a real sense of humor to use an O(2n) algorithm
in ‘hard realtime’ applications in telecom, but it works!
(Boss went crazy the first time we proposed it)
Label correctors with an appropriate candidate list data
structure in fact make very few corrections and run fast Tree (D,P) and list (CL) arrays
Array Definition Description D Distance
(output) Current best distance from root to node i P Predecessor
(output) Predecessor of node it in shortest path (so far)
from root to node i CL Candidate
list (internal) List of nodes that are eligible to be added to the
growing shortest path tree. CL[i]=
NEVER_ON_CL
ON_CL_BEFORE
j
END_OF_LIST if node has never been on CL
if node has been on CL before
if node i is now on CL and j next
if node is last on CL 6 1D arrays for input, output, data structures:
Graph input and data structure:
Head, To, Dist
Tree output and data structure:
D, P
Candidate list to control algorithm: CL 7 Method
• Initialize:
– P: Shortest path tree= {root}
– D: Distance from root to all nodes= “infinity”
– CL: Candidate list= {root}, at end of list • At each step:
– A node i is removed from front of CL
– For each arc ij leaving node i where the
distance from the root to node j is shortened
by going via node i, add node j to CL:
• If CL[j] == ON_CL_BEFORE, add j to front of CL
• If CL[j] == NEVER_ON_CL:
– If D[j] < D[front node on CL], add j to front of CL
– Else add j to end of CL • If CL[j] > 0, j is now on CL. Do nothing.
• If CL[j] == END_OF_LIST, terminate algorithm Example
3 a Root (4, b)
(5, b) (2, d)
(3, a) (0, a) 1 b 2 c 1
d (1, a) i P D CL a a 0 ON_BEF b d 2 END c b 4 ON_BEF d a 1 ON_BEF a b d c b end 8 Code, p.1
public class
public class ShortPathTest {
static void main(String args)
public static void main(String args) { g= new Graph();
Graph g= new Graph(); g.shortHK(); } } g.shortHK();
public class Graph {
class Graph
private int nodes;
private int arcs;
int head;
private int head;
int to;
private int to;
int dist;
private int dist;
private int root;
int P;
private int P;
int D;
private int D; Nodes
(sentinel) slots
// Nodes + 1 (sentinel) slots
Arcs
// Arcs
Arcs
// Arcs
Predecessor
// Predecessor
Label
// Label Graph() {
Set nodes=4, arcs=4, root=1; head, to,dist as in example
// Set nodes=4, arcs=4, root=1; head, to,dist as in example
In general, read network from file or generate on fly
// In general, read network from file or generate on fly
} Code, p.2
void shortHK()
public void shortHK() {
Constants—
Constants
be in Graph as static
// Constants—could be in Graph as static
Integer.MAX_VALUE/2;
final int MAX_COST= Integer.MAX_VALUE/2; Short.MIN_VALUE;
final int EMPTY= Short.MIN_VALUE; final int NEVER_ON_CL= 1; final int ON_CL_BEFORE= 2; final int NOT_ON_CL= 3; Integer.MAX_VALUE;
final int END_OF_CL= Integer.MAX_VALUE; new int[nodes];
D= new int[nodes]; new int[nodes];
P= new int[nodes]; int CL= new int[nodes];
int CL= new int[nodes]; // Initialize Initialize
for (int i=0; i < nodes; i++) {
(int
nodes; i++)
D[i]= MAX_COST;
MAX_COST;
P[i]= EMPTY;
EMPTY;
NEVER_ON_CL;
CL[i]= NEVER_ON_CL; }
0;
D[root]= 0; END_OF_CL;
CL[root]= END_OF_CL; lastOnList= root;
int lastOnList= root; firstNode= root;
int firstNode= root; 9 Manage CL do
do {
Dfirst= D[firstNode];
int Dfirst= D[firstNode];
link=head[firstNode
head[firstNode]; link<head[firstNode+1]; link++){
for(int link=head[firstNode]; link<head[firstNode+1]; link++){
outNode= to[link];
Loop thru arcs out of node
int outNode= to[link];
// Loop thru arcs out of node
int DoutNode=
dist[link];
int DoutNode= Dfirst + dist[link];
Do something only if
(DoutNode
D[outNode])
if (DoutNode < D[outNode]) { // Do something only if impvt P[outNode]= firstNode;
P[outNode]= firstNode; D[outNode]= DoutNode;
D[outNode]= DoutNode; CLoutNode= CL[outNode];
int CLoutNode= CL[outNode]; (CLoutNode
CLoutNode==NEVER_ON_CL 
if (CLoutNode==NEVER_ON_CL  CLoutNode==ON_CL_BEFORE) { CLfirstNode= CL[firstNode];
int CLfirstNode= CL[firstNode];
(CLfirstNode
END_OF_CL &&
Front of CL
if (CLfirstNode != END_OF_CL &&
// Front of CL CLoutNode==ON_CL_BEFORE  DoutNode<
(CLoutNode==ON_CL_BEFORE  DoutNode<D[CLfirstNode])){ CL[outNode]= CLfirstNode;
CL[outNode]= CLfirstNode; CL[firstNode]= outNode;
CL[firstNode]= outNode; } Back of CL
else {
// Back of CL CL[lastOnList]= outNode;
CL[lastOnList]= outNode; lastOnList= outNode;
lastOnList= outNode; CL[outNode]= END_OF_CL;
End for loop
CL[outNode]= END_OF_CL; } } } } // End for loop nextCL= CL[firstNode];
Go to next node
int nextCL= CL[firstNode];
// Go to next node CL[firstNode]= ON_CL_BEFORE;
CL[firstNode]= ON_CL_BEFORE; firstNode= nextCL;
firstNode= nextCL; END_OF_CL);
End do loop
} while (firstNode < END_OF_CL); } } // End do loop Summary
• Shortest path algorithm
– 22 lines of code, after initialization
• Down from 200+ lines 25 years ago for d’EsopoPape – One addition operation, otherwise only increment, compare
– 3 data structures (queueaslist, network, tree) as arrays
• They control the very simple algorithm very efficiently – Linked list would be too expensive
• Memory allocation in small chunks is very slow – Separate data structures and algorithm would be too expensive • Method call overhead noticeable in real time algorithms – One preprocessing trick used by HaoKocur:
• Sort arcs out of node by distance. Get a bit of ‘Dijkstra effect’ – This is the opposite extreme to the typical Java style that emphasizes flexibility, reuse, generality – This is somewhat typical of embedded systems, realtime algorithms • Nothing is truly typical, because all are tuned, use special cases 10 Applications, other graphs
• Shortest path applications to flows in networks:
– Traffic, telecom, data, water, task scheduling, …
– HaoKocur used in telecom software, optical routers,
transport software, … • Other network methods:
– Spanning trees, min cost flows, matching, …
– Many matrix problems can be cast as networks
• Graph is the matrix; tree is the basis/solution
• All integer variables, usually avoids precision hassles – Combinatorial or decision problems (and games)
• Use graphs directly, and use other graph algorithms as
subproblems in their solution methods 11 ...
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 Spring '05
 GeorgeKocur
 Graph Theory, Data Structures, shortest path, Array Representation

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