MIT2_017JF09_ch12 - 12 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING 12 12.1 94 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING Introduction This section formalizes the notion

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Unformatted text preview: 12 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING 12 12.1 94 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING Introduction This section formalizes the notion of loopshaping for linear control system design. The loopshaping approach is inherently two-fold. First, we shape the open-loop transfer function (or matrix) P (s)C (s), to meet performance and robustness specifications. Once this is done, then the compensator must be computed, from from knowing the nominal product P (s)C (s), and the nominal plant P (s). Most of the analysis here is given for single-input, single-output systems, but the link to multivariable control is not too difficult. In particular, absolute values of transfer functions are replaced with the maximum singular values of transfer matrices. Design based on singular values is the idea of L2 -control, or linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control and the loop transfer recovery (LTR). 12.2 Roots of Stability – Nyquist Criterion We consider the SISO feedback system with reference trajectory r(s) and plant output y (s), as given previously. The tracking error signal is defined as e(s) = r(s) − y (s), thus forming the negative feedback loop. The sensitivity function is written as S (s) = 1 e(s) = , r(s) 1 + P (s)C (s) where P (s) represents the plant transfer function, and C (s) the compensator. The closedloop characteristic equation, whose roots are the poles of the closed-loop system, is 1 + P (s)C (s) = 0, equivalent to P (s)C (s) + P (s)C (s) = 0, where the underline and overline denote the denominator and numerator, respectively. The Nyquist criterion allows us to assess the stability properties of a feedback system based on P (s)C (s) only. This method for design involves plotting the complex loci of P (s)C (s) for the range s = jω , ω = [−∞, ∞]. Remarkably, there is no explicit calculation of the closed-loop poles, and in this sense the design approach is quite different from the root-locus method (see Ogata, also the rlocus() command in MATLAB). 12.2.1 Mapping Theorem To give some understanding of the Nyquist plot, we begin by imposing a reasonable assumption from the outset: The number of poles in P (s)C (s) exceeds the number of zeros. It is a reasonable constraint because otherwise the loop transfer function could pass signals with infinitely high frequency. In the case of a PID controller (two zeros) and a second-order zero-less plant, this constraint can be easily met by adding a high-frequency rolloff to the compensator, the equivalent of low-pass filtering the error signal. 12 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING 95 Now let F (s) = 1 + P (s)C (s) (the denominator of S (s)). The heart of the Nyquist analysis is the mapping theorem, which answers the following question: How do paths in the complex s-plane map into paths in the complex F -plane? We limit ourselves to closed, clockwise(CW) paths in the s-plane, and the powerful result of the mapping theorem is Every zero of F (s) that is enclosed by a path in the s-plane generates exactly one CW encirclement of the origin in the F (s)-plane. Conversely, every pole of F (s) that is enclosed by a path in the s-plane generates exactly one CCW encirclement of the origin in the F (s)­ plane. Since CW and CCW encirclements of the origin may cancel, the relation is often written Z − P = C W . So it will be possible to relate poles and zeros in the F (s)-plane to encirclements of the origin in the s-plane. Since we get to design the path in the s-plane, the trick is to enclose all unstable poles, i.e., the path encloses the entire right-half plane, moving up the imaginary axis, and then proceeding to the right at an arbitrarily large radius, back to the negative imaginary axis. Since the zeros of F (s) are in fact the poles of the closed-loop transfer function, e.g., S (s), stability requires that there are no zeros of F (s) in the right-half s-plane. This leads to a slightly shorter form of the above relation: P = C CW. In words, stability requires that the number of unstable poles in F (s) is equal to the number of CCW encirclements of the origin, as s sweeps around the entire right-half s-plane. 12.2.2 Nyquist Criterion The Nyquist criterion now follows from one translation. Namely, encirclements of the origin by F (s) are equivalent to encirclements of the point (−1 + 0j ) by F (s) − 1, or P (s)C (s). Then the stability criterion can be cast in terms of the unstable poles of P (s)C (s), instead of those of F (s): P = C CW ←→ closed-loop stability This is in fact the complete Nyquist criterion for stability: It is a necessary and sufficient condition that the number of unstable poles in the loop transfer function P (s)C (s) must be matched by an equal number of CCW encirclements of the critical point (−1 + 0j ). There are several details to keep in mind when making Nyquist plots: • From the formula, if neither the plant nor the controller have unstable poles, then the loci of P (s)C (s) must not encircle the critical point at all, for closed-loop stability. If the plant and the controller comprise q unstable poles, then the loci of P (s)C (s) must encircle the critical point q times in the CCW dirction. 12 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING 96 • Because the path taken in the s-plane includes negative frequencies (i.e., the nega­ tive imaginary axis), the loci of P (s)C (s) occur as complex conjugates – the plot is symmetric about the real axis. • The requirement that the number of poles in P (s)C (s) exceeds the number of zeros means that at high frequencies, P (s)C (s) always decays such that the loci go to the origin. • For the multivariable (MIMO) case, the procedure of looking at individual Nyquist plots for each element of a transfer matrix is unreliable and outdated. Referring to the multivariable definition of S (s), we should count the encirclements for the function [det(I + P (s)C (s)) − 1] instead of P (s)C (s). The use of gain and phase margin in design is similar to the SISO case. 12.2.3 Robustness on the Nyquist Plot The question of robustness in the presence of modelling errors is central to control system design. There are two natural measures of robustness for the Nyquist plot, each having a very clear graphical representation. The loci need to stay away from the critical point P (s)C (s) = −1 = 1 180◦ , and how close the loci come to it can be expressed in terms of magnitude and angle: • When the angle of P (s)C (s) is −180◦ , the magnitude |P (s)C (s)| should not be near one. • When the magnitude |P (s)C (s)| = 1, its angle should not be −180◦ . These notions lead to definition of the gain margin kg and phase margin γ for a design. As the figure shows, the definition of kg is different for stable and unstable P (s)C (s). Rules of thumb are as follows. For a stable plant, we desire kg ≥ 2 and γ ≥ 30◦ ; for an unstable plant, kg ≤ 0.5 and γ ≥ 30◦ . As defined, these conditions will maintain stability even if the gain is increased by a factor of two for the stable open-loop system, or decreased by a factor of two for the unstable OL system. In both cases, the phase angle can be in error by thirty degrees without losing stability. Note that the system behavior in the closedloop, while technically stable through these perturbations, might be very poor from the performance point of view. The following two sections outline how to manage robustness and performance simultaneously using the Nyquist plot. 12.3 Design for Nominal Performance Performance requirements of a feedback controller, using the nominal plant model, can be cast in terms of the Nyquist plot. Since the sensitivity function maps reference input r(s) to tracking error e(s), we know that |S (s)| should be small at low frequencies. For example, 12 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING 97 P(s)C(s) Im(s) 1/kg X Im(s) 1/kg Re(s) J X Re(s) J P(s)C(s) Stable P(s)C(s) Unstable P(s)C(s) if one-percent tracking is to be maintained for all frequencies below ω = λ, then |S (s)| < 0.01, ∀ω < λ. This can be formalized by writing |W1 (s)S (s)| < 1, where W1 (s) is a stable weighting function of frequency. To force S (s) to be small at low ω , W1 (s) should be large in the same range. The requirement |W1 (s)S (s)| < 1 is equivalent to |W1 (s)| < |1 + P (s)C (s)|, and this latter condition can be interpreted as: The loci of P (s)C (s) must stay outside the disk of radius W1 (s), which is to be centered on the critical point (−1+0j ). The disk is to be quite large, possibly infinitely large, at the lower frequencies. 12.4 Design for Robustness It is ubiquitous that models of plants degrade with increasing frequency. For example, the DC gain and slow, lightly-damped modes or zeros are easy to observe, but higher-frequency components in the response may be hard to capture or even to excite repeatably. Higherfrequency behavior may have more nonlinear properties as well. The effects of modeling uncertainty can be considered to enter the nominal feedback system as a disturbance at the plant output, dy . One of the most useful descriptions of model uncertainty is the multiplicative uncertainty: ˜ P (s) = (1 + Δ(s)W2 (s))P (s). Here, P (s) represents the nominal plant model used in the design of the control loop, ˜ and P (s) is the actual, perturbed plant. The perturbation is of the multiplicative type, Δ(s)W2 (s)P (s), where Δ(s) is an unknown but stable function of frequency for which 12 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING 98 |Δ(s)| ≤ 1. The weighting function W2 (s) scales Δ(s) with frequency; W2 (s) should be growing with increasing frequency, since the uncertainty grows. However, W2 (s) should not grow any faster than necessary, since it will turn out to be at the cost of nominal performance. ˜ In the scalar case, the weight can be estimated as follows: since P /P − 1 = ΔW2 , it will ˜ suffice to let |P /P − 1| < |W2 |. ˜ Example: Let P = k /(s − 1), where k is in the range 2–5. We need to create a nominal model P = k0 /(s − 1), augmented with the smallest possible value of W2 , which will not vary with frequency in this case. Two equations can be written using the above estimate, for the two extreme values of k , yielding k0 = 7/2, and W2 = 3/7. In particular, k0 ± W2 = [2, 5] For constructing the Nyquist plot, we observe that ˜ P (s)C (s) = (1 + Δ(s)W2 (s))P (s)C (s). The path of the perturbed plant could be anywhere on a disk of radius |W2 (s)P (s)C (s)|, centered on the nominal loci P (s)C (s). The robustness condition is that this disk should not intersect the critical point. This can be written as |1 + P C | > |W2 P C | ←→ |W2 P C | 1 > ←→ |1 + P C | 1 > |W2 T |, where T is the complementary sensitivity function. The last inequality is thus a condition for robust stability in the presence of multiplicative uncertainty parameterized with W2 . 12.5 Robust Performance The condition for good performance with plant uncertainty is a combination of the above two conditions. Graphically, the disk at the critical point, with radius |W1 |, should not intersect the disk of radius |W2 P C |, centered on the nominal locus P C . This is met if |W1 S | + |W2 T | < 1. The robust performance requirement is related to the magnitude |P C | at different frequen­ cies, as follows: |W1 /P C |, since |P C | is large. This leads directly to the 1. At low frequency, |W1 S | performance condition |P C | > |W1 | in this range. 2. At high frequency, W2 T | |W2 P C |, since |P C | is small. We must therefore have |P C | < 1/|W2 |, for robustness. 12 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING 99 Im(s) W1 X Re(s) P(s)C(s) W2PC 12.6 Implications of Bode’s Integral The loop transfer function P C cannot roll off too rapidly in the crossover region, and this limits how ”dramatic” can be the loop shapes that we create to achieve robustness, nominal performance, or both. The simple reason is that a steep slope induces a large phase loss, which in turn degrades the phase margin. To see this requires a short foray into Bode’s integral. For a transfer function H (s), the crucial relation is 1�∞ d [log(|H (jω )|) · log(coth(|ν |/2))] dν, H (jω0 ) = π −∞ dν where ν = log(ω/ω0 ), and coth() is the hyperbolic cotangent. The integral is hence taken over the log of a frequency normalized with ω0 . It is not hard to see how the integral controls the angle: the function log(coth(|ν |/2)) is nonzero only near ν = 0, implying that the angle depends only on the local slope d(log |H |)/dν . Thus, if the slope is large, the angle is large. n Example: Suppose H (s) = ω0 /sn , i.e., it is a simple function with n poles at the origin, and n no zeros; ω0 is a fixed constant. It follows that |H | = ω0 /ω n , and log |H | = −n log(ω/ω0 ), so that d(log |H |)/dν = −n. Then we have just H=− n� ∞ nπ log(coth(|ν |/2))dν = − . π −∞ 2 This integral is easy to look up or compute. Each pole at the origin induces 90◦ of phase loss. In the general case, each pole not at the origin induces 90◦ of phase loss for frequencies above the pole. Each zero at the origin adds 90◦ phase lead, while zeros not at the origin add 90◦ of phase lead for frequencies above the zero. In the immediate neighborhood of these poles and zeros, the phase may vary significantly with frequency. The Nyquist loci are clearly susceptible to these variations is phase, and the phase margin can be easily lost if the slope of P C at crossover (where the magnitude is unity) is too steep. 12 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING 100 The slope can safely be first-order (−20dB /decade, equivalent to a single pole), and may be second-order (−40dB /decade) if an adequate phase angle can be maintained near crossover. 12.7 The Recipe for Loopshaping In the above analysis, we have extensively described what the open loop transfer function P C should look like, to meet robustness and performance specifications. We have said very little about how to get the compensator C , the critical component. For clarity, let the designed loop transfer function be renamed, L = P C . It suffices to just pick C = L/P. This simple step involves a plant inversion: the idea is to first shape L as a stable transfer function meeting the requirements of stability and robustness, and then divide through by the plant transfer function. • When the plant is stable and has stable zeros (minimum-phase), the division can be made directly. • One caveat for the stable-plant procedure is that lightly-damped poles or zeros should not be canceled verbatim by the compensator, because the closed-loop response will be sensitive to any slight change in the resonant frequency. The usual procedure is to widen the notch or the peak in the compensator, through a higher damping ratio. • Non-minimum phase or unstable behavior in the plant can usually be handled by performing the loopshaping for the closest stable model, and then explicitly considering the effects of adding the unstable parts. – In the case of unstable zeros, we find that they impose an unavoidable frequency limit for the crossover. In general, the troublesome zeros must be faster than the closed-loop frequency response. – In the case of unstable poles, the converse is true: The feedback system must be faster than the corresponding frequency of the unstable mode. MIT OpenCourseWare 2.017J Design of Electromechanical Robotic Systems Fall 2009 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: . ...
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MIT2_017JF09_ch12 - 12 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING 12 12.1 94 CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOOPSHAPING Introduction This section formalizes the notion

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