1.The New Left: in the 1960s, many radicalized American students formed what became known as the New Left. In 1962, a group of students (most of them white and many from U. of Michigan) gathered in Michigan to form Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), which became the most prominent org of the New Left. Their declaration of beliefs expressed their disillusionment w/the society they had inherited and their determination to build a new politics. The Free Speech Movement (at UC Berkeley) was the first major outburst of a decade of campusturmoil. The wanted to rebel and break the “machine”. The antiwar movement expanded the challenge to universities, sparking demonstrations, riots, and building seizures at colleges all over the US. Not many people accepted the radical philosophy of the New Left, but many supported the position of SDS on certain issues, especially the Vietnam War.2.Weathermen: an offshoot group of SDS, especially radical; they were responsible for a few cases of arson and bombing that destroyed campus buildings and claimed several lives. 3.Draft Dodging: Student activists organized some of the largest political demonstrations inAmerican history to protest American military involvement in Vietnam. The abolition of many traditional deferments – graduate students, teachers, husbands, fathers, and others – swelled the ranks of those faced with conscription. Of the almost 2 million drafted, 7,000 draft-age Americans simply refused induction, accepting what were occasionally long terms in jail as a result. Thousands of others fled to Canada, Sweden, and other places where they were joined by deserters directly from the armed forces.4.Counter Culture: a new youth culture openly scornful of the values and conventions of middle-class society. As if to display their contempt for conventional standards, young Americans flaunted long hair, shabby or flamboyant clothing, and a rebellious disdain for traditional speech and decorum. Also a new, more permissive view of sex and drugs. The counterculture attacked American society, its hollowness, artificiality, and isolation from nature. The “hippies”, who came to dominate the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco and other places, and the social dropouts, many of whom retreated to rural communities- rejected modern society altogether and attempted to find refuge in a simpler, more natural existence. The widespread use of marijuana, the freer attitudes towards sex, the iconoclastic (often obscene) language – all spread to the entire generation of people, not just hippies and outcasts. Rock musicwas a vehicle for expressing themes of the social and political unrest of the late 60s. The Beatles began a more experimental, mystical approach that reflected the fascination with drugs and Eastern religions. Rolling Stones had open themes of anger, frustration, and rebellion. Bob Dylanand Joan Baez expressed explicit political radicalism.