p_eval04_l2_19cn

p_eval04_l2_19cn - 1.011 Project Evaluation Carl D....

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1.011 Project Evaluation Carl D. Martland Example of the Ability of Civil Engineering Projects to Shape Cities and Channel Development: Roads, Canals, and Railroads in the Early 19th Century
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Transport Options, Early 19th Century Rough Road $1-2,000/mile to construct 1 ton/wagon 12 miles/day 12 tm/day/vehicle $0.20 to $0.40/tm for freight rates Turnpike $5-10,000/mile 1.5 tons/wagon 18 miles/day 27 tm/d/v $0.15 to $0.20/tm Canal >$20,000/mile 10-100 tons/boat 20-30 miles/day 200-3000 tm/d/v $0.05/tm Railroad $15-50,000/mile 500 tons/train 200 miles/day 100,000 tm/d/v <$0.05/tm
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Why Build Canals? Water is the most economical & efficient way to transport bulky, non-perishable goods BUT - you need the waterway! High volume of goods so long as speed is not a great factor Canals are built so that Freight rates decline Food can be delivered to cities Cities can become trade centers
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China's Grand Canal Geography: N-S canal links major rivers Geopolitics: transport improvements help unit the empire Benefits Steady supply of grain from south to north 300,000 tons of grain per year in 7th century Costs: 5.5 million laborers worked 6 years on one 1,500 mile stretch (20 man-years per mile)
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Bridgewater Canal Built in 1761 to link Manchester England with coal mines Benefits: Halved the price of coal in Manchester (a direct benefit of increased efficiency of transport) Helped Manchester become England's leading industrial center (development benefit for the region) Stimulation of infrastructure development By 1840s, Britain had a network of 5,000 miles of canals Technological improvements: straighter, deeper, wider canals; aqueducts to cross rivers
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Background on Canals Capacity: Gross tonnage/boat equals water displaced, so width and depth are key Space is needed for two boats to pass If canal is straight, rafts or barges can be linked Tow Path Tow Path
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Excavation Costs Increase With the Size of the Canal Doubling the width and depth of the canal can lead to major increases in excavation
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Locks Reduce Excavation, But Locks Avoided Excavation
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Water Supply is Essential for Operating a Canal with Locks Water Supply Verticle Alignment Horizontal Alignment
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2011 for the course CIVIL 1.00 taught by Professor Georgekocur during the Spring '05 term at MIT.

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p_eval04_l2_19cn - 1.011 Project Evaluation Carl D....

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