MIT1_018JF09_exam_3

# MIT1_018JF09_exam_3 - Name Page 1 1.018/7.30J Ecology 1...

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Useful Equations and Information dS dN 1 K 1 N 1 N 2 rV PV = = DS i DS rNQ ! = r 1 N 1 dt dt K 1 r S r = max ! dN 2 K 2 N 2 N 1 K + S = r 2 N 2 ! s dt K 2 ( S i S ) dP N = = PV qP ! Q dt f dV D = ! V dt ' ' ' E = E E dN N o o ( OxidizingAgent ) o (Re ducingAgent ) = rN 1 dt K G ' o = nF ( E ' o ) SI = 1 D n = # e - transferred per mol of reductant -1 -1 F = Faraday constant (96.5 kJ V mol ) - 1 -1 R = gas constant (8.31 J K mol ) Standard reactants: 1 M, 1 atm, 25°C (298 K) Name: ____________________ Page 1 th 1.018/7.30J Ecology 1 Quiz #3 November 24 , 2009 Please put your name on every page! Space is provided for your answers; if you need more room, use the back of the same page. This exam is worth 100 points, with an additional 5 points of bonus problems. You have 80 minutes to work on it and the value of each question is roughly proportional to the amount of time you should spend answering it. The test will begin at 11:05am and promptly end at 12:25pm. !! Mean = 75.9, Standard Deviation = 12.3 1. True or False (7 points): ___ F _The majority of Earth’s freshwater is contained lakes and rivers ___ T _Global renewable freshwater resources are likely to increase as a result of climate change ___ T _Nitrogen cycles more rapidly in the global environment, on average, than phosphorous ___ F _The nitrogen cycle has a weak biological component ___ F _On an annual basis, the flux of carbon to the atmosphere generated by human activity is larger than the flux of carbon from the atmosphere to terrestrial vegetation. ___ T _The oceans store the majority of the Earth’s carbon ___ F _The largest reservoir of phosphorus on Earth is the atmosphere

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Name: ____________________ Page 2 2. (15 points) Match each statement with the correct term or terms. Statements with more than one answer are noted. Some terms may be used more than once, some not at all. 1. Exergonic 2. Endergonic 3. Reducing Agent 4. Oxidizing Agent 5. Chemotroph 6. Phototroph 7. Chemolithotroph 8. Nitrogen 9. Water Vapor 10. Carbon Dioxide 11. Oxygen 12. Methane 13. 3.6B years ago 14. 2.5B years ago 15. 2B years ago 16. 1B years ago 17. Assimilation 18. Mineralization 19. Haber-Bosch Process 20. Denitrification 21. Nitrification 22. Nitrogen Fixation 23. Biological Fractionation 24. Redfield Ratio __ 14 _Great Oxygenation Event __ 15 _Emergence of macroscopic eukaryotes __ 23 _Differential use of isotopes of elements by enzymes ___ 1 _A reaction that releases energy ___ 2 _A reaction that absorbs energy _ 5,7 _An organism that gets its energy from reduction/oxidation reactions (2 answers) ___ 7 _An organism that oxidizes inorganic compounds 9,10,12 _Gasses present in significantly greater quantities in Earth’s early atmosphere than in the current atmosphere (3 answers) 19,22 _Conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia (2 answers) __ 21 _Biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrite __ 20 _Nitrate reduction to N 2 gas - ___ 3 _NH 4 + in: NH 4 + + NO 2 N 2 + 2 H 2 0
Name: ____________________ Page 3 3. (10 points) Answer the following questions using one sentence: Why do cyanobacteria bloom in lakes that are enriched with phosphorus?

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