POL 3 MODELS

POL 3 MODELS - Collective security is one type of coalition...

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Collective security is one type of coalition building strategy in which a group of nations agree not to attack each other and to defend each other against an attack from one of the others, if such an attack is made. The principle is that "an attack against one, is an attack against all." It differs from "collective defense" which is a coalition of nations which agree to defend its own group against outside attacks. Thus NATO and the Warsaw Pact were examples of collective defense, while the UN is an attempt at collective security. Models of Decision-Making : Rational Model : actors are rational; they first decide on their goals/objectives, then look at the different possible ways of achieving those objectives, then go through a cost/benefit analysis to weigh the different options and see which option is least costly and most beneficial. That is, which option is utility maximizing. To achieve the objective of fighting terrorism what should the US government do? Invade Iraq? Focus on Afghanistan only? Invade Syria, Iran? Don’t invade at all but conduct a public diplomacy campaign to win the hearts and minds? Each of these options will be weighed and then policy makers will decide on the best option (as they think). Organizational Model : Foreign policy is a complex process and policy makers, in this model, skip the time-consuming ‘rational model’ of studying all the options and alternatives and instead use the organizations they work for to do the decision making, relying mostly on Standard Operating Procedures. Most of the US foreign policy decisions are taken by the lower-level decision makers who rely on general principles, without specific directions from the top leadership. In other words, the organization itself develops a set of standard operating procedures that most of those working for the organization can follow. This is how most decisions are taken. Bureaucratic Model (Government Bargaining): Decisions are the outcome of the bargaining process among the various government agencies which have different interests. Just think of the conflict between the State Department and the Department of Defense in the United States. There are two bureaucracies that have different interests, one wants to emphasize diplomacy and the other military spending. We all should be familiar with the conflicts between Colin Powell and Donald Rumsfeld, right! Another example comes from Japan. The ministry of agriculture, which wanted to protect its farmers, objected to the idea of importing rice from the United States. The Japanese Foreign Ministry, which is mostly concerned about maintaining good relations with the United States, supported importing rice from the US. Whichever decision the government takes is an outcome of the tug-of-war between its different agencies and bureaucracies that have different interests. Three Major Theories
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POL 3 MODELS - Collective security is one type of coalition...

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