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Pol 51 FINAL study guide

# Pol 51 FINAL study guide - Pol 51 FINAL study guide...

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Pol 51 FINAL study guide Empirical theory 4 causal hurdles along route to establishing causal relationships: 1) Is there a credible causal mechanism that connects x to y? 2) Could y cause x? 3) Is there covariation between x and y? 4) Is there some confounding z variable that is related to both x and y and makes the observed association between x and y spurious? Game theory: Nash Equilibrium - A situation in which actors cannot act unilaterally to better their outcomes Dominant strategy- The choice that benefits a player the most without taking the other into consideration Population parameter a certain characteristic of a population that can be qualified as a number. (ex. proportion of Californians who voted for Obama, Age) Sample statistic an estimation of a population parameter calculated from sample data. Sample population congruence Want sample to be representative subset of population. Incomplete or inappropriate samples lead to sample bias- an inaccurate conclusion about the population. Sampling error The discrepancy between an observed and a true value. The statistic most often used to describe sampling error is called the standard error of the mean. Distributions Central tendency (mean median mode and standard deviation) Skew (right or left) Non symmetrical distribution, Positive or right skewed data has a larger tail to the right and a negative of left skewed has a larger tail to the left. There are more frequency scores at the higher ends of the distribution. Kurtosis

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Pol 51 FINAL study guide - Pol 51 FINAL study guide...

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