LectureNotes - MajorThemes/TheoriesofChildDevelopment...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Major Themes/Theories of Child Development 18:28 MAJOR THEMES 1. Continuity/discontinuity continuous development=gradual process of growth discontinuous development= process where new skills emerge at specific times a warning: continuity/discontinuity depends on how and where you look ex: height is continuous ex: annual height gain is discontinuous 2. Nature/nurture nature=genetic inheritance: what we are born with nurture=our environment: where we live, what we eat, what we watch on TV Nature AND Nurture Example: Height of a tree Example: Guatemalan Maya (US children on average 10 cm taller) 3. The Active Child Children shape their own experiences through: attention communication activities (and many more. .) example: infant video 4. Development in different domains is always connected cognitive development social development
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
THEORIES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT Each theory proposes that development is determined by ???? 5 Theories of Development 1. Biological perspective Development is determined by biology. Gesell’s maturational theory: predetermined biological plan for development. Ethological/Evolutionary Theories: Focus on adaptive or survival value of behaviors over the course of evolution. Example: infant crying Imprinting= forming emotional bond *Biological basis but requires experience 2. Psychodynamic Development is determined by how child resolves conflicts. Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic theory Three main structures: Id Ego Superego Freud’s model of personality The id: Present from birth Ruled by pleasure principle=achieve max pleasure fast Most primitive drive The ego:
Background image of page 2
Emerges late in 1 st  year Tries to negotiate between id and reality, but never fully in control The superego: Develops in preschool into middle childhood Home to morality and conscience Guides child away from actions that cause guilt Criticisms: Claims are too vague to be empirically tested Many details are highly questionable or flat out wrong But still… Emphasized early experiences Emphasized unconscious mental activity Cultural effects  research on sexuality, parenting, etc. 3. Learning  Learning perspective development is determined by experience (only) Locke: Children are born with a “blank slate” Watson’s Behaviorism Primary mechanism: Learning through conditioning Later, Albert also generalized his learning to other white, furry objects (beards) Wrote: Psychological Care of Infant and Child (1928) Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning= repeat actions that lead to positive outcomes (reinforcement),  suppress those that lead to negative outcomes (punishment) Real-life applications: “time out”
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
behavior modification therapy Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
Background image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course PSY 244 taught by Professor Barnes during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

Page1 / 75

LectureNotes - MajorThemes/TheoriesofChildDevelopment...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online