Founding East Asia.docx - Turbulent East Asia China\u2019s government for over 2000 years had been relatively stable Each dynastic house might have ran the

Founding East Asia.docx - Turbulent East Asia Chinau2019s...

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Turbulent East Asia China’s government for over 2000 years had been relatively stable. Each dynastic house might have ran the government differently, but the dynastic state remained intact until 1911. In 1911 everything changed in China. The dynastic was replaced with a Republic. The story of that change is one of the great turbulence. As the dynasty ended, competing factions dove into the political vacuum. Principally, the KMT and CCP emerged to unify China once again under their control. In the midst of that struggle for power, Japan sought opportunities to sweep in and claim China for itself. Their involvement, especially during WWII, left lasting scars on the people of China. Turbulent First Years: 1911-1916 Revolutionary Alliance The Revolutionary Alliance refers to an Anti-Qing organization founded by Dr. Sun Yat-Sen. While in Japan, he found many who wanted to overthrow the Manchu Qing dynasty and restore Chinese rule. They operated out of Japan and would send people back to China to infiltrate the government and military. Both men and women were a part of the Revolutionary Alliance. Over time they gained a more broad based support, especially in China itself. They remained a loose coalition of groups to keep that support. Wuhan Rebellion Wuhan was an area of China that was known for having a complex and diverse population. It made it fertile ground for political and social experimentation. Since 1904 groups of radical young Chinese, many of whom had lived in Japan, formed revolutionary cells in this area. The long range goal of the groups here was to overthrow the Manchus and reinstate a Chinese government. The short term strategy was to join and infiltrate the New Army and coordinate political activities with members of various secret societies. They were fluid in that they would disband groups that had caught the eye of the government, and recreate them in other ways. On October 9, 1911 there was an explosion in a garage of one group. This prompted an investigation by the government. The Russian government, still under the Czar at this point, helped in that investigation. Members were being taken in and executed. At this point, it became imperative that they act quickly and launched mutinies. They appointed Li Yuanhong to lead the Revolutionary Alliance in the area and begin the revolution. Their demands included a parliament, a constitution from that parliament, amnesty for political activists, and removing the emperor's power to execute criminals. Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai had served in the Qing military, but by 1911, the Qing had actually banished him. They now sought his help in putting down this rebellion. He refused to help them. However, the new provisional national assembly elected him as premier, a position he would accept. He had to play a balancing act and put pressure on both groups for a time. The mother of the last Qing emperor, Henry Puyi, moved to the front of these negotiations and authorized Yuan to rule. Her actions reminded leaders too much of the Empress Dowager so it was not a popular move. Dr. Sun Yat-Sen had been in the United States when the

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