Unformatted text preview: Visual Literacy and Document Design Desired Learning Outcomes Understand what visual literacy is and why it is important
See how document design impacts readers, users, and consumers
Identify factors that affect and promote successful communication
Apply the rhetorical principles needed to communicate a message effectively What is visual literacy? Understanding how information is organized
Evaluating the quality of visual information
Presenting visual material effectively What is document design?
Document design is the study of how good writing and good visual design can improve documents: the goal is to help readers accomplish goals (learning, doing, making a decision). Referential Representation shoe
Iconographic Orthographic Thinking is Visual
“The words of the language, as they are written or spoken, do not seem to play any role in my mechanism of thought. The physical entities which seem to serve as elements in thought are certain signs and more or less clear images . . ., in my case, visual. — Albert Einstein Consider . . .
How many windows were in the kitchen of the apartment or house that you lived in when you were nine years old? Practice visual imaging
The cube is painted red and sliced into 27 smaller cubes How many of the small cubes are red on three faces?
On only two?
On only one?
How many are not painted at all? Back surfaces are painted red, too. The Visual Dimension
Producing a document that is noticed, read, understood, remembered, and appropriately acted upon requires visual literacy—the ability to understand, think, and communicate graphically. Do the following: Place the middle of one stick in the crease between your thumb and index finger, resting the tip of it on the inside of your ring finger in the hand your prefer to eat with against the side of your fingernail on the finger. This chopstick will be referred to as the bottom one because it is below the other one you’ll use later. Still holding the bottom one, place the bottom half of the other stick across the side of your index finger's bottom knuckle and the top half of the chopstick across your middle finger's top knuckle (against the side of your fingernail where you would normally hold a pencil when writing if you were writing). Rest your thumb across both chopsticks. Use your index fingertip to hold the second stick in placethe top chopstick because it’s above the other one. Improvement? How To Use Chopsticks
1. Place the middle of one chopstick in the crease between your thumb and index finger, resting the tip of it on the inside of your ring finger against the side of your fingernail. This chopstick is referred to as the bottom chopstick.
2. Holding the bottom chopstick, place the bottom half of the second chopstick across the side of your index finger's bottom knuckle and the top half of the chopstick across your middle finger's top knuckle (against the side of your fingernail where you would normally hold a pencil when writing) and rest your thumb across both chopsticks. What does the visual add? Integrate textual and visual
1. Place the middle of one chopstick in the crease between your thumb and index finger, resting the tip of it on the inside of your ring finger against the side of your fingernail.
This chopstick will be referred to as the bottom chopstick. Problems with Documents Institutional “gray” page (leading, white space, format) Hardtounderstand forms
Incomprehensible, ambiguous prose and patronizing tone
Important information in fine print A Notable Example The Challenge
Finding the best design and medium for the content How do ideas move from mind to mind? What is communication? The act of transmitting information
The exchange of information through common symbols
A phenomenon of socially constructing meaning A Communication Model Sender Message Receiver A More Dynamic Model
IMAGE CREATOR IDEA PRESENTATION IMAGE CONSUMER The Process of Communication
perception encoding Id e a representation Im a g e What you want the consumer to do, know, or feel decoding P r e s e n t a t io n What you want the consumer to experience The work or the act of communication Im a g e Id e a
What the consumer does, knows, or feels What the consumer experiences Decoding Id e a Im a g e P r e s e n t a t io n Im a g e Id e a How does an image provoke an idea?
The idea depends on more than just the image +
• Other text,
graphics + Consumer's
• Memories and
• Inference and
• Curiosity and
interest Idea Seeing and understanding is a dynamic process (Gestalt psychology) Perception is an active process
People organize what they see into figure and ground
A figure’s appearance depends on context
Readers may add dimension
Figure groupings depend on visual properties Which line appears longer? A B What are these images? What do you see? Encoding Id e a Im a g e P r e s e n t a t io n Im a g e Id e a Formula for Encoding
1 You want the consumer to have your idea Id e a Im a g e P r e s e n t a t io n Im a g e Id e a 3 Use that image here 2 What image
in the ... Context
Mind ... triggers
this idea? Principles for Effective Encoding Use the image that suggests the idea rather than the one suggested by the idea.
Rely on the consumer’s associations instead of your own.
Build on the contribution of the context and the consumer’s mind. Present the Most Telling Details
Can you recognize these people? Image Id e a Im a g e P r e s e n t a t io n Im a g e Id e a What are Images?
Images are arrangements of objects with properties. ... have ...
Image ... is
of ... Properties
Objects ... can be words, pictures, sounds,
music, or a combination ... put
into an ... Arrangement Objects
Any "thing" can represent an idea. Words •S S S S S •–• –•• ••• Properties
Which object is more exciting? Annoying?
Which is more soothing? Which object is a tukatee
and which is a maluma? Can you name these magazines?
XXXXXXXXXX Associations of Shape
What kind of information would you find in each of these shapes? Graphical Properties
Graphical properties guide our eyes and minds. # Value
# Pattern What happens with an incongruity of properties?
With Wit h Deepest Sym pat hy DEEPEST Sympathy Typography
The interaction between space and letters Setting mood and feel set (e.g., formal/informal)
Inviting to scan (toptobottom, lefttoright)
Give clues about type of document, its purpose and genre (Can you identify junk mail easily?)
Suggest how to interpret and use
Reveal what designers thought important Arrangement
The arrangement of objects affects perception and meaning. Spatial layout and composition
where objects appear Temporal the sequence in which objects appear Spatial Arrangement
# Vertical Position
# Horizontal Position
# Enclosure Temporal Arrangement
# Anticlimax The Wordless Icon Assignment
Using black shapes on a white background, visually depict two of the following words or concepts: Order
Playful Design Considerations Framing of shapes
Overlapping and cropping of shapes
Using white space
Contrasting elements Size
Position Apply these principles . . . Session Summary Visual literacy involves understanding, evaluating, and creating effective information
Document design is how good writing and visual design can assist readers (users or consumers) to accomplish their goals
Communication consists of processes and skills we can study, learn, understand, and replicate Questions? ...
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- Fall '11
- Index finger, document design