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411 final paper

411 final paper - Diversity within High Risk Minorities...

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Diversity within High Risk Minorities Health status and outcomes among minorities have remained poor, or have gotten worse despite health promotion campaigns. High risk behaviors such as substance abuse, unsafe sex and violence promote health damaging conditions. Studies identify eight risk factors associated with the use of drugs including: unconventional relationships with adults, peer influence, antisocial behavior and feeling pressure of expectations of future drug use (Yee; Castro; Hammond; John; Wyatt; Yung, 1995). According to Castro other factors also play a part in making these youth high risk. Inherited genes such as depression may set the stage for substance abuse. Traumatic events such as child abuse and neglect can cause a slowing of development leading to problems with trust and self-esteem. Minorities are also more likely to live in environments stricken with poverty and economic deprivation. These conditions are also conducive to low educational achievement. It is estimated that the current national graduation rate for all students of low socioeconomic status is about 68% compared with only 53% of Hispanics and 50% of African Americans. Problems within the family such as divorce or a loss of a parent also increase the risk of substance abuse. Conflicts with one’s place in society can result in antisocial behavior. Feelings of discrimination and perceived racism strongly affect minority youth negatively. Other social influences such as time spent on recreation, religion and future goals seem to be predictors of risk-taking behavior among youth. African American youth are more likely to engage in sex before the age of 16 and birth a child before the age of 18. African Americans and Latino’s are also at higher risk of contracting HIV or STD’s. A 2008 study produced by the CDC indicated that 48% of young African American women aged 14-19 were infected with at least one common type of STD. Amaro
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(1995) suggested that culture and its impact on gender roles influence sexuality and HIV risk. This calls for attention to values, beliefs and practices within cultures to provide intervention strategies to prevent disease and promote health within out minority communities,(Moldano- Moline; Reingle; Jennings; Prado, 2011). High rates of injury and death are present among the minority groups.
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