exam3reading - SMOKING READING(CHAPTER 7-2 of the most...

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SMOKING READING (CHAPTER 7) --2 of the most common health-comprising behaviors –Smoking and Alcohol. 23.5% of American’s smoke, men and women equally --46.5 million smokers in America African Americans Most likely to smoke (24.3%) --Hispanics (19.8%) --Asian Americans (15%) More coming in low education, low income --75% of young men and 60% of young women in a low socioeconomic status smoke. Most people start smoking before the age of 21 --Regular smokers in adolescence—70% become regular adult smokers Smoking is the leading cause of preventable mortality in the US. Psychological --New identity in teens --Media driven --Distinct personality traits of those who smoke (high risk-taking behaviors, unprotected sex, alcohol), extraverted, social, higher rates of depression. NICOTINE FIXED-EFFECT MODEL --Nicotine stimulates reward-inducing centers in the nervous system. --Nicotine increases levels of neuroregulators, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and endogenous opioids, which in turn lead to better memory and concentration and reduced feelings of anxiety and tension. --“Smoking feels good, so people are motivated to continue the behavior.” NICOTINE REGULATION MODEL --Extends the fixed-effect model by predicting that smoking is rewarding only when the level of nicotine is above a certain “set point” in the body. --In other words, individuals need to smoke enough cigarettes to maintain a certain amount of nicotine in the bloodstream or they do not experience the physiological effects of smoking. LIMITATIONS TO MODELS --Nicotine disappears from the blood a few days after smoking ceases, quitting should not be that difficult. --Models ignore environmental pressures that can prompt smoking, such as stress and anxiety. (Smokers undergoing stress, much more difficult time quitting.)
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--Even heavy smokers do not smoke enough to compensate for the decline in nicotine resulting from tolerance, and although nicotine replacement methods east some withdrawal symptoms, they do not end smokers’ cravings for cigarettes. AFFECT-REGULATION MODEL --One of earliest models predicting smoking, focuses on the ability of smoking to help with affect, or mood regulation --Proposes that people smoke to attain positive affect of to avoid (or reduce) negative affect. --Also proposes that people smoke as a way of coping with negative affect, to reduce anxiety, tension, and frustration. MULTIPLE REGULATION MODEL --Combination of physiological and psychological factors leads to addiction --Predicts that smoking is initially used to regulate emotions, but other time how smokers feel becomes linked with how much nicotine they have in their blood. BIOBEHAVIORAL MODEL --Also suggest both psychological and physiological factors lead people to continue smoking over time.
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exam3reading - SMOKING READING(CHAPTER 7-2 of the most...

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