notesex2 - Chapter 10.1-10.13Chapter 11.1, 11.4-11.5Chapter...

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Chapter 10.1-10.13Chapter 11.1, 11.4-11.5Chapter 12Chapter 13.1-13.2, 13.5- 13.7Chapter 14.1-14.6 Chapter 20.2-20.3 3 characteristics of joints 1. Weight bearing 2. Shock absorption 3. Stability-mobility tradeoff Joints without a cavity 1. Fibrous (synarthotic)—dense fibrous tissue, little/no movement 2. Cartilaginous (amphiarthotic)—fibrocartilage or hyline, moderate/little movement Joints with a cavity 1. Synovial (diarthotic)—freely moveable, joint capsule Diarthrosis 1. Synovial fluid 2. Articular cavity 3. Articular cartilage 4. Articular capsule 5. Synovial membrane 6. Ligaments 7. Blood vessels 8. Sensory nerves Plane joint/nonavial/gliding joints—flat or slightly curved, permits gliding/sliding movement, no axis (carpals) Uniaxial Joints 1. Hinge joint (permits flexion/extension) ex elbow joint 2. Pivot joint (peg or tube and ring) Biaxial joints— 1. Condyloid joint, oval or egg shaped, permits flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, and circumduction. (Finger) 2. Saddle joint—modification or condyloid, 2 degrees of freedom Triaxial joints—call and socket, 3 degrees of freedom Function of joints 1. Provide a means of moving, or rather, of being moved. 2. Provide stability without interfering with the desired motion 3. Emerson’s law—“for everything that is given, something is taken” a. Inverse relationship—give mobility, stability taken Factors responsible for stability 1. Shape of bones
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2. Ligaments/joint capsule 3. Muscle Factors affect the stability of a joint are related to its ROM 1. Shape or articular surfaces 2. Restraining effect of ligaments 3. Muscles and tendons—most important factor, flexibility should not exceed muscle’s ability to maintain integrity of joint Skeletal muscle—most abundant tissue in the body (40-45% of total body weight) and the ultimate generator in the body Skeletal muscle under voluntary control --Attaches onto two bones, crossing the joint located between them. Movement = forces not equal Stability = forces equal Skeletal muscle properties 1. Extensibility (stretch) and Elasticity (recoil)—enable the muscle to be stretched, and return to its normal length 2. Contractivity—ability to shorten and produce tension 3. Conductivity—conduction of electrical excitation (via muscle stimulation) along membrane initiating contraction 4. Excitability (irritability)—stimulation produces electrical change. MUST HAVE
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notesex2 - Chapter 10.1-10.13Chapter 11.1, 11.4-11.5Chapter...

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