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Unformatted text preview: Network Traffic Characteristics of Data Centers in the Wild Theophilus Benson * , Aditya Akella * and David A. Maltz † * University of Wisconsin–Madison † Microsoft Research–Redmond ABSTRACT Although there is tremendous interest in designing improved net- works for data centers, very little is known about the network-level traffic characteristics of current data centers. In this paper, we con- duct an empirical study of the network traffic in 10 data centers belonging to three different types of organizations, including uni- versity, enterprise, and cloud data centers. Our definition of cloud data centers includes not only data centers employed by large on- line service providers offering Internet-facing applications, but also data centers used to host data-intensive (MapReduce style) appli- cations. We collect and analyze SNMP statistics, topology, and packet-level traces. We examine the range of applications deployed in these data centers and their placement, the flow-level and packet- level transmission properties of these applications, and their im- pact on network utilization, link utilization, congestion, and packet drops. We describe the implications of the observed traffic patterns for data center internal traffic engineering as well as for recently- proposed architectures for data center networks. Categories and Subject Descriptors C.4 [ Performance of Systems ]: Design studies; Performance attributes General Terms Design, Measurement, Performance Keywords Data center traffic, characterization 1. INTRODUCTION A data center (DC) refers to any large, dedicated cluster of com- puters that is owned and operated by a single organization. Data centers of various sizes are being built and employed for a di- verse set of purposes today. On the one hand, large universities and private enterprises are increasingly consolidating their IT ser- vices within on-site data centers containing a few hundred to a few Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. IMC’10, November 1–3, 2010, Melbourne, Australia. Copyright 2010 ACM 978-1-4503-0057-5/10/11 ...$10.00. thousand servers. On the other hand, large online service providers, such as Google, Microsoft, and Amazon, are rapidly building geo- graphically diverse cloud data centers, often containing more than 10 K servers, to offer a variety of cloud-based services such as E- mail, Web servers, storage, search, gaming, and Instant Messaging....
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- Spring '11
- Data center, data centers