LECTURE_15_SLIDES

LECTURE_15_SLIDES - NPB12 Lecture 15 Epilepsy A condition...

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Unformatted text preview: NPB12 Lecture 15 Epilepsy A condition characterized by abnormal, recurrent, and excessive discharges from neurons. These discharges generally result in seizures of varying severity. 1-2 percent of Americans 60% in children (often get better with age) 50% due to head injury or ischemic event; 50% don t know why Two major types: Generalized and Partial Generalized Seizures: These also come in two types: Tonic-Clonic and Absence can last for 30 seconds to 3 min person is unconscious usually wakes up, is confused and irritable sleeps for several hours afterwards Absence immobility muteness blank stare last 5 10 seconds (but up to 30 sec), so can go unnoticed usually goes away untreated by 20 or so. Electroencephalogram (EEG) measures the electrical potentials from the scalp non-seizure with interictal spikes normal EEG tonic-clonic epileptic seizure absence seizure groups of neurons in the brainstem are responsible for controlling the overall activity of the cerebral cortex. When the activity is low, the cortical activity is low. (sleep) (coma) When the activity is high, the cortical activity is high. (generalized seizure) Partial Seizures The seizures start at a small part of the brain, called the epileptic focus . They cause the symptoms that you would expect if that part of the cerebral cortex started to become over-active. You can figure out where it is in large part by the symptoms. The symptoms can spread as the epileptic activity spreads to the neighboring cortex. This is called a Jacksonian March , and can eventually lead to a generalized tonic-clonic seizure Motor Seizures: Epileptic focus is in the motor cortex. Can start as a twitching in a single body part. The Jacksonian March can spread to other parts of the body. Sensory Seizures: Epileptic focus is in the sensory cortex. Symptoms start appropriate for that sensory cortex Bars of light in one visual field in both eyes complex faces tones or buzzes Psychic Seizures Aphasia: Loss of speech (understanding and/or production) Dysmnesia: deja vu Cognitive: Intrusion of a single thought repeated over and over Affective: Sudden, intense, fear, anger, euphoria, for no good reason...
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LECTURE_15_SLIDES - NPB12 Lecture 15 Epilepsy A condition...

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