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2. Columbus Exploration

2. Columbus Exploration - 2 Columbus Exploration Thinking...

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2. Columbus Exploration Thinking About Empire and Exploration September 14, 2009 Voyages to the Americas happen as an extension of earlier efforts Exploration and colonization are the extension of imperial ambitions Varied motivations (financial, religious, political, etc) Motivations change over time Difficulties determining what “really” happened. I. The World in 1492 and the New Monarchs a.i.1. Luxury of the east a.i.2. Imperial ambitions of new monarchs a.i.3. Christian missionary a.ii. Merchants, Marvels, and Missionaries: Motivations for Exploration in 1492 a.ii.1. Garden of Eden a.ii.1.a. Believed that luxury could be found “out there” in the East. a.ii.1.b. Wanted to locate the Garden of Eden in the lands to their East. a.ii.2. Genghis Khan (died 1227) and Pax Mongolica a.ii.2.a. Khan established empire that spanned all across Asia. He established a trade network from Asia to Europe. a.ii.2.b. Look back at Genghis Khan as a person who had luxury and possessed gold. a.ii.2.c. Khan instituted the “ Pax Mongolica ” that ensured the safety of merchants on trade routes into Asia. This reinvigorated Western Europeans to travel with merchants into Asia. a.ii.2.d. Along with merchants, Christina missionaries went to Asia to convert others to the Christina Catholic faith. Religion became intertwined with trade. a.ii.3. Travels of Marco Polo a.ii.3.a. Documented voyage into the Far East. a.ii.3.b. Shaped Western European attitudes towards different cultures and peoples. a.ii.4. Prester John a.ii.4.a. The mythical Christian king of a long lost kingdom. The mention of Prester John comes in 1155 when Christina crusaders came back from North Africa. a.ii.4.b. He was directly descended from the magi who worshipped at the side of Christ’s manger. a.ii.4.c. Believed that if they found Prester John, they would have an ally against the Muslim army. Thus, monarchs tell merchants and missionaries to keep a look out for Prester John. a.ii.4.d. The search for Prester John went to the African interiors. a.ii.5. Genoa and trading colonies a.ii.5.a. Colonization began with the Venetians, who tried to expand their territory. a.ii.5.b. The Republic of Genoa (located at the knee of the boot of Italy) were trying to reach Asia through a Western route since 1291. a.ii.5.c. Disappearance of Genoa fleet, instead of stopping further voyages, was explained by the belief that they found Prester John. a.ii.5.d. Wanted to find colonies to turn raw materials into manufactured goods to sell (iron goods and making salt). a.ii.5.e. Helped Europeans see the value of having control over raw material and finished product.
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a.ii.6. Portugal, African gold, and the Madeiras a.ii.6.a. Portuguese wanted to acquire gold from Africa, the most valuable of all commodities.
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