4 - 4. The Changing Balance of Power: England and Spain...

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4. The Changing Balance of Power: England and Spain October 7, 2009 Fall of Philip II’s Armada was a major turning point; very unexpected. It was a David & Goliath story – Elizabeth was the underdog. I. Philip II of Spain (1556 – 1598) a.i. Father: Charles I (King of Spain) a.ii. Charles Abdicates (1555) a.ii.1. Philip II gets Spain, Netherlands, the Americas a.ii.2. Ferdinand gets HRE a.iii. 1556 – Marries Mary I of England Philip II was the great-grandson of Maximilian (Hapsburg family) who married his children off to secure royalty. Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) – invite Luther to recant. Phillip II was the successor to the great Holy Roman Emperor (Spain, Netherlands, and all of the New World territories that Columbus claimed). o He was carefully trained to rule the empire. o By 1555, Charles was tired of ruling; he abdicates from the throne. He decides to divide up territory between his son Philip and his brother Ferdinand. o He gives Philip the heart of the empire – Spain, the Netherlands, and the Americas. o He gives his brother Austria (Hapsburg rule). In 1555, Philip begins ruling a considerable empire. o He marries the daughter of Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII. o Charles V wanted his son to legitimize Mary’s claim to the English throne and return England to Catholicism. o Philip II preferred Elizabeth Tudor rather than Mary I. However, Mary I was passionately in love with Philip II. II. Elizabeth I of England (1558 – 1603) a.i. The Elizabethan Religious Settlement (1559) a.i.1. Act of Supremacy a.i.2. Act of Uniformity a.ii. The New Marriage Diplomacy a.ii.1. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester a.ii.2. Sir Christopher Hatton a.ii.3. Henry, Duc d’Anjou (later Henry III of France) a.ii.4. Francois, Duc d’Alencon After the death of Mary, Elizabeth I takes the throne in 1558. She faced a bankrupt country that
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4 - 4. The Changing Balance of Power: England and Spain...

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