lecture_10-solar_system

lecture_10-solar_system - Meteorites, Asteroids, and...

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Unformatted text preview: Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets: Messengers from the Solar Nebula Complete Solar System survey Structure Patterns of composition Patterns of motion dwarf planets & the small stuff From dust to planets the solar nebula theory Our goals today: Conceptual view of the forming Solar System Overview of Planets It is convenient and appropriate to divide the 8 planets into two classes: terrestrial planets jovian planets The study of extra-solar planets may reveal different classes. More about this in the later in the quarter! Venus Sulfuric acid clouds ~90 bars pressure No Water 480 C surface! an oasis of life the only surface liquid water in the solar system a surprisingly large moon Valley networks runoff channels Summary: the Terrestrial planets 4 planets with solid surfaces, 3 have atmospheres One large moon what is interior like? Need to know bulk composition. Mass and density: Density () = Mass / Volume Do not confuse density with mass ! Water: = 1 g/cm 3 Rock: 3 g/cm 3 Metal: 8 to 10 g/cm 3 Provides clues about a planet's interior composition: How do we measure mass and volume? What is your estimate for the density of the Earth (in g/cm 3 )? 1 2 3 4 5 6 3% 20% 16% 13% 27% 21% 1. <1 2. between 1 and 3 3. between 3 and 5 4. between 5 and 7 5. between 7 and 9 6. >9 All the inner planets have high densities (3.9-5.5) Name Density (g/cm 3 ) Earth 5.52 Mercury 5.42 Venus 5.26 Mars 3.94 In contrast the outer, Jovian, planets have densities ranging from 0.7 to 1.6- implies mix of rock + metal Io 3.53 Moon 3.34 Europa 3.01 - implies what? Gas giants Much farther from Sun than inner planets Mostly H/He; no solid surface 300 times more massive than Earth Many moons, rings Callisto Ganymede Europa Color Mosaic and Active Volcanic Plumes on Io November 17, 1997 Europa Saturns largest moon: Titan Mosaic of river channel and ridge area on First images from Titans surface Enceladus Enceladus has giant geyser of water ice and dust coming out of its south pole fissures!! Smaller than Jupiter/Saturn; much larger than Earth Made of H/He gas and hydrogen compounds (H 2 O, NH 3 , CH 4 ) Extreme axis tilt Moons and rings Uranus Similar to Uranus (except for axis tilt) Many moons (including Triton) Neptune Pluto and Eris Much smaller than other planets Icy, comet-like composition Plutos moon Charon is similar in size to Pluto Volatiles (H...
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lecture_10-solar_system - Meteorites, Asteroids, and...

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