Extra Credit — Due Tuesday, Dec. 6
Psychology of Personality, Fall 2011
This course covers seven approaches to the study of personality:
Psychoanalytic, Neoanalytic, Phenomenological, Learning, and Cognitive.
For your extra credit
opportunity, you are to read the description of each example below and identify which of the
seven approaches it best fits into.
This will require you to understand the main themes and issues
characterizing each approach we have studied.
On a separate piece of paper, identify the best
approach for each study by typing the number of
the example and the name of the approach.
Each approach will be used at least once.
correctly identified example is worth .5 pt, for a possible 5 points total on this extra credit
Answers must be typed (i.e., no
This extra credit is due
by the beginning of class on Tuesday, Dec. 6.
No email submissions will be accepted.
Goal relevance and the affective experience of daily life: Ruling out situational
Year of Publication:
Fleeson,W., & Cantor, N.
Hypothesized that the content of the goal an individual pursues in a given event will
remain associated with affect, even while controlling for the situational, interpersonal, or
temporal contexts of the event. 54 sorority women participated in (1) an intake assessment of 7
life- task goals (e.g., being involved with someone, establishing future goals, doing well
academically) on 15 dimensions (e.g., importance, enjoyment, time spent); (2) a 15-day
experience sampling and diary phase; and (3) an outcome assessment. Results showed that goal
relevance can vary while contexts are held constant, and that this variation remains associated
with variation in affect while the context is held constant, thus ruling out context as an
explanation of these associations. Additionally, the importance of a goal to an individual was
related to this variation in goal pursuit within each context.
A dual-process model of defense against conscious and unconscious death-related
thoughts: An extension of terror management theory.
Year of Publication:
Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., & Solomon, S.
Distinct defensive processes are activated by conscious and nonconscious but
accessible thoughts of death. Proximal defenses, which entail suppressing death-related thoughts
or pushing the problem of death into the distant future by denying one's vulnerability, are
rational, threat-focused, and activated when thoughts of death are in current focal attention.
Distal terror management defenses, which entail maintaining self-esteem and faith in one's
cultural worldview, function to control the potential for anxiety that results from knowing that
death is inevitable. These defenses are experiential, are not related to the problem of death in any
semantic or logical way, and are increasingly activated as the accessibility of death-related