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Unformatted text preview: 5 Curve Sketching Whether we are interested in a function as a purely mathematical object or in connection with some application to the real world, it is often useful to know what the graph of the function looks like. We can obtain a good picture of the graph using certain crucial information provided by derivatives of the function and certain limits. 5aÜ iÑ aaÒd iÒ iÑ a A local maximum point on a function is a point ( x, y ) on the graph of the function whose y coordinate is larger than all other y coordinates on the graph at points “close to” ( x, y ). More precisely, ( x, f ( x )) is a local maximum if there is an interval ( a, b ) with a < x < b and f ( x ) ≥ f ( z ) for every z in ( a, b ). Similarly, ( x, y ) is a local minimum point if it has locally the smallest y coordinate. Again being more precise: ( x, f ( x )) is a local minimum if there is an interval ( a, b ) with a < x < b and f ( x ) ≤ f ( z ) for every z in ( a, b ). A local extremum is either a local minimum or a local maximum. Local maximum and minimum points are quite distinctive on the graph of a function, and are therefore useful in understanding the shape of the graph. In many applied problems we want to find the largest or smallest value that a function achieves (for example, we might want to find the minimum cost at which some task can be performed) and so identifying maximum and minimum points will be useful for applied problems as well. Some examples of local maximum and minimum points are shown in figure 5.1. If ( x, f ( x )) is a point where f ( x ) reaches a local maximum or minimum, and if the derivative of f exists at x , then the graph has a tangent line and the tangent line must be horizontal. This is important enough to state as a theorem, though we will not prove it. 91 92 Chapter 5 Curve Sketching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....................... . . .. . .. ... ....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • A B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • A A B Figure 5.1 Some local maximum points ( A ) and minimum points ( B ). THEOREM 5.1 Fermat’s Theorem If f ( x ) has a local extremum at x = a and f is differentiable at a , then f ′ ( a ) = 0. Thus, the only points at which a function can have a local maximum or minimum are points at which the derivative is zero, as in the left hand graph in figure 5.1, or the derivative is undefined, as in the right hand graph. Any value of x for which f ′ ( x ) is zero or undefined is called a critical value...
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course MATH 305 taught by Professor Guichard during the Fall '11 term at Whitman.
 Fall '11
 GUICHARD
 Math

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