BUseful FormulasAlgebraRemember that the common algebraic operations haveprecedencesrelative to each other:for example, mulitplication and division take precedence over addition and subtraction, butare “tied” with each other. In the case of ties, work left to right. This means, for example,that 1/2xmeans (1/2)x: do the division, then the multiplication in left to right order. Itsometimes is a good idea to use more parentheses than strictly necessary, for clarity, butit is also a bad idea to use too many parentheses.Completing the square:x2+bx+c= (x+b2)2-b24+c.Quadratic formula: the roots ofax2+bx+care-b±√b2-4ac2a.Exponent rules:ab·ac=ab+cabac=ab-c(ab)c=abca1/b=b√aGeometryCircle: circumference = 2πr, area =πr2.Sphere: vol = 4πr3/3, surface area = 4πr2.477478Appendix B Useful FormulasCylinder: vol =πr2h, lateral area = 2πrh, total surface area = 2πrh+ 2πr2.
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