Ch_5 - Study of Language COMD 2050 Chapter 5: Sounds of...

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1 Study of Language COMD 2050 Chapter 5: Sounds of Language 5 basic aspects of speech production Normal speech is produced through a complex series of movements that combine: ± Respiration: breathing. ± Phonation: producing voice. ± Articulation: forming speech sounds by constricting the airstream with the lips and the tongue. ± Resonance: allowing air flow through the nose during the production of some sounds. ± Prosody: adding stress and rhythm to your speech. Respiration ± Breathing provides the energy source for speech. ± The vocal folds (in the larynx) are the valves that control the air flow out of the lungs. ± Vocal folds = Vocal chords ± Larynx = Voice box
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2 Respiration ± The larynx is made of cartilage, so it feels hard like bone but the vocal folds are fleshy. They are made of muscle, collagen and membrane. ± The vocal folds are at the level of your Adam’s apple – top part of the larynx. ± The larynx is made of cartilage. The vocal folds are made of muscle, collagen and membrane. Phonation ± The production of a voice by the larynx. ± Air flowing between the moving vocal folds produces sound. ± Changes in the amount of air flowing through the vocal folds and the position and configuration of the vocal folds allow us to sing and talk at different pitches and loudness levels. Resonance ± Refers to whether air flows out of the nose. ± If the air flows out through the nose during speech, the sound produced is a nasal sound. ± If all the air goes out through the mouth, a nonnasal speech sound is produced.
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3 Articulation ± The ways in which the lower jaw, the tongue, and the lips modify the flow of air through the mouth to produce different speech sounds. Prosody ± We modify our respiration, phonation, and articulation in order to add stress and rhythm to our speech, to give it melody. Spelling v. Sound ghoti spells fish: /gh/ of tough, /o/ of women, /ti/ of nation. seagh spells chef: /s/ of sure, /ea/ of death, /gh/ of laugh.
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4 Spelling v. Sound ± English (Latin) alphabet has 26 letters ± How many sounds does English have? ± 40+ ± Sounds letters Same sound, different spelling ± “See” ± see ± se nile ± se a ± sie ge ± sei ze ± sce nic –cea se –ce dar –Cae sar –cei ling –juicy –sexy –glossy Spelling v. Sound ± Solution: ± Phonetic alphabet ± Each sound represented by 1 character ± Each character represents (only) 1 sound
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5 Phonetics Phonetics: the study of the characteristics of speech sounds. Articulatory phonetics : how speech sounds are made (articulated). Acoustic phonetics: physical properties of speech as sound waves in the air. Auditory phonetics: deals with the perception (ear) of speech sounds. Forensic phonetics: deals with legal cases involving speaker identification and the analysis of recorded utterances.
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course COMD 2050 taught by Professor Collins during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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Ch_5 - Study of Language COMD 2050 Chapter 5: Sounds of...

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