Ch_10 - Chapter 10 Syntax Syntax Syntax: structure and...

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1 Chapter 10 Syntax Syntax ± Syntax: structure and ordering of components within a sentence. Generative Grammar ± Noam Chomsky: his theory was originally called transformational-generative grammar and is now called minimalism ± Generative grammar – a grammar that employs a set of explicit rules to produce an infinite number of sentences.
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2 Generative Grammar ± A rule of generative grammar is similar to a mathematical expression or a formula. ± NP Æ Art (Adj) N ± Phrase structure rules Properties of grammar ± “All and only” criterion: grammar must generate all the grammatical sentences and only the grammatical sentences ± Finite number of rules but capable of generating infinite well-formed sentences ± Recursion: the capacity to be applied more than once in generating a structure Recursion ± Prepositional phrases can be recursive ± I want the book by the computer on the desk in the study. ± Immediate Constituent Analysis can show recursion ± [The boy [who left] is my brother.] ± [The girl knew [(that)] the boy left.]] ± Right-branching recursion ± [The Weather Channel said [that the hurricane hit Louisiana.]] ± Center embedding ± [The hurricane [that hit Louisiana] caused damage.]
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3 Syntactic theory 2 other facts about language that a syntactic theory has to explain are: ± 2 sentences that look different can have the same meaning ± 2 sentences that look the same can have different meanings Surface and deep structure ± Surface structure (SS): the actual syntactic form of the sentence – the string of words in the sentence. ± Deep structure (DS): an abstract level of structural organization in which all the elements determining structural interpretation are represented, underlying meaning is represented structurally Transformational rules ± Rules that change the order of the units in the deep
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course COMD 2050 taught by Professor Collins during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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Ch_10 - Chapter 10 Syntax Syntax Syntax: structure and...

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